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Government of Tamil nadu 



Inhuman- Crime 


ent of School Ed 


A Publication Under 

Government of Tamilnadu 

Distribution of Free Textbook Programme 


© Government of Tamilnadu 
First Edition -2011 

(Published under Uniform System of School Education Scheme) 

Text Book Team: 

Mrs.P. Mary Malliga, St. Joseph A.I. Hr.Sec. School, Vepery, Chennai. 

Mr.S. Moorthy, P.G. Asst., Govt. Girls Hr.Sec. School, Valavanoor, Villupuram District. 

Mrs. Sharmila Leena Martin, B.T. Asst., Holy Angels A. I. H.Sec. School, Chennai. 

Mr.S. Muthuraman, B.T. Asst., Nadar Hr.Sec. School, Varthirayierupu, Virudhunagar District. 

Mr. Sivaraj, B.T. Asst., Government Hr.Sec. School, Thandalaiputhur, Trichy District. 

Mrs. Walieeda Nazer, ICF Silver Jubilee Hr.Sec. School, ICF. 

Review Committee: 

Dr. David Jeyabalan, Associate Professor, Loyola College, Chennai. 

Mr. Moses Samuvei Chellaiali, Principal, St. Pauls TTI. Periyar Nagar, Chennai. 


Dr.Beula Jayaseeli, Principal, BishopAppasamy College of Education, Avinashi Road, Coimbatore. 

Expert Committee: 

Tmt. Sumitra M. Gautama, Co-ordinator, Outreach The School (K.F.I.) Chennai. 

Laser Typ&set d Layout : M. Vijayosarathy, T. Raghti, R. Anandhan 
Book Wrapper ; M. Vijoyosarathy 

Textbook Printing 
Tannilnadu Textbook Corporation, 

College Road, Chennai - 600 006 

Price: Rs. 

This book has been printed on 80 G.S.M IVIaplitho Paper 

Printed by web offset at: 

S^rfluj £^\h 


g6OT ffieiror wm ^^rBmuffi giu (Sara 

umj^ urrffiiu nSl^rr^ir 
Ui^ffnu 6r51iB§j ogijrr^ inijrrLLn" 

fii^jB^iLi 6irfilLDn'd'6u uj(Lp5tn'n' aiijsT 

^6iJ dru rBrT<oLJi grrCoa 

^6ij ffiu ^rfleru iJ)rr(Sffi 

g69r sfiovr LDiijafiTr ^rriLia guj Gain 
umj^ urrauj flSl^rr^rr 

^lu Cd6ud ^lu (o6ia] ^lu (osm] 

giij ffliu guj giu (SeMT) ! 

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he 



Tava subha name jage, 

Tava Subha asisa mage, 
Gahe tava jaya-gatha. 

Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he 

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he, 

Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. 

- Rabindranath Tagore. 


Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka jaya he 

Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he 

Jaya jaya, jaya, jaya he. 


Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people, 

Thou dispenser of India's destiny. 
Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind, 

Gujarat and Maratha, of Dravid, Orissa and Bengal. 
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, 

mingles in the music of the Yamuna and Ganges 

and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea. 
They pray for Thy blessings and sing Thy praise 
The saving of all people waits in Thy hand. 
Thou dispenser of India's destiny. 
Victory, Victory, Victory to Thee. 

i£p'(r3rAj ai_gu(bl^^ r£l6ULj)i_iB6iD^4 C1aL^Q6urr(Lg(^Li] 

Q^3i6)&m([pui ^^rb^rDjB^ ^irrrnSli-rBGb ^(T^rBrrCbliJi 
^^a#1p LJ)6iDrD^^gULJi arflffiffin^im ^6ua&(y](DLi] 

CT^^6iDd=LL|Li) L|d5L^Lii6inn-^a gl(r3iB^Qu(r3iB ^LflLpeimrr^Coffi ! 

^LiJlLpfiSffrr^CDa ! 

Cld=iu6ULi)piB§j surrijiai gigi GLJ)! eurrLfffi gigi Sm ! eurrijiai gigi CpU] ! 

- '^(oflnTreiTLiifiSHfujLi' Qu.&i^^ifssiKJr. 


Bharat is like the face beauteous of Earth clad in wavy seas; 

Deccan is her brow crescent-like on which the fragrant Tilak' is the 
blessed Dravidian land. 

Like the fragrance of that Tilak' plunging the world in joy supreme reigns 
Goddess Tamil with renown spread far and wide. 

Praise unto 'You, Goddess Tamil, whose majestic youthfulness, inspires 
awe and ecstasy.' 


"I solemnly pledge to work with dedication to preserve and strengthen the freedom and 
integrity of the nation." 

"I further affirm that I shall never resort to violence and that all differences and disputes 
relating to religion, language, region or other political or economic grievances should be 
settled by peaceful and constitutional means." 


Name : 

Class : School : 

I shall overcome the obstacles raised by caste and communal prejudices and work 
for the greatness of my Motherland putting to the fullest use the benefits that I derive through 

Vande mataram! 





Page No: 




















































In Unit-I, an attempt has been made to open the minds of the children to 
understand and respect the feelings of grandparents at home and appreciate and 
reciprocate their love. This seems to be decreasing these days, for a variety of 
reasons! The Wooden Bowl, which is an adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's wonderful story 
of the same name, is an eye opener to all. It is suggested that the introduction could 
be an interactive session, inviting students to share their experiences. 

This lesson, being the first one, is quite simple, yet opens a framework for the 
active learning of language. The activities given help the child to read, to relate with 
the content, to understand, to recall, to assess and interact in small and large groups. 

In grammar, the tenses learnt in class VII are reinforced through interactive 

The second part begins with a nostalgic poem by Kamala Surayya, called 'My 
Grandmother's House'. Her layered thoughts on a loving grandmother, who is no 
more, could be used to kindle children to ponder over life's purpose, and the universal 
need to be loved. The teacher can encourage the students to write poems on their 
grandparents and other people who are significant in their lives. 

The story for supplementary reading, 'A Mothers' Day Gift', is based on a real 
life incident depicting the courage and selfless love of a mother, which helps her 
daughter to learn an important lesson in life. 

May our society cherish and value senior citizens, and may their happiness be 
a blessing to all of us. 



Adapted from Leo Tolstoy's The Wooden Bowl' 

In Preparation 

Old people often feel insecure, as their health starts failing and are left 
alone, when their need for care and rest increases. What can the young do, to 
make the elderly people in their families feel more cared for? 

Anbu loved his parents very much. An only child, he was used to being the 
centre of attention at home. But this had not spoilt him. His father would always 
say,"Let us never forget our beginnings." ForAnbu'sfather Saravanan was afanmer's 
son. His parents lived in Karamadai, not far away from Coimbatore. Anbu and his 
parents would often go to visit his grandparents. He and his cousins loved to play in 
the fields and orchards that surrounded his grandparents' home. In the distance, one 
could seethe blue hills, sometimes surrounded by fleecy white clouds. 

fleecy -woolly 

Anbu loved the countryside. His firiends at school would 
sometimes laugh at him. They would say, "This isthe twenty-fi rst century, Anbu -don't 
live in the past." But he would only smile in answer. Anbu also loved his grandparents 
very much. He used to listen to stories that his grandmother narrated to him and his 
cousins. His grandmother was a great story 
tellerl Anbu shared a silent bond with his 
grandfather. The old man loved the land that he 
tilled. While his cousins were busy eating raw 
mangoes or guavas, 

Anbu would sit under a 

tree with his grandfather, 

looking at the goats and cows that were grazing nearby. 

Where do your 
grandparents live? 

Sometimes, Anbu would pick up some mud, and iet it slip through his hands. 
IHis grandfather would say, "That mud is more vaiuabie than goid!" Thus, there grew a 
bond between them, one that was buiit around the air and the grass and the green 
fieids and the hiiisfaraway-a bond that seemed permanent as the earth. 

All this was perhaps too good to last - Anbu's grandmother passed away. 
Anbu's father Saravanan spoke to h is brother and sister about his grieving father. 

"I am prepared to look after him," he said. ''Maybe it is time that we disposed 
of the land." 

disposed of -sold 

Anbu was very unhappy when he heard about this. 'Why are we selling the 
land, Appa?" he asked. "Grandpa loves the land. You have told me so many times that 
we should not forget our beginnings. It is through working ^ 
on the land that he supported all three of you. Why do you 
want to break his heart?" 

IHis father looked down sadly at Anbu. "That way of 
life is no more, Anbu!" he said. "Grandpa is old and cannot 
live by himself. Just think, he will be coming to live with us!" 

And that was how grandfather came to live with Anbu's parents. Through the 
difficult months following grandma's death, the only bond that kept the old man 
attached to life was his relationship with his grandson. Though they lived in a flat in 
Gandhipuram, the heart of the city, Anbu's mother had many pots in the small balcony, 
where she grew a few herbs and flowers. Anbu's grandfather would sit there for hours, 
staring sorrowfully at the sky. Anbu would come back from 
school in the evenings and sit with his grandfather. He 
could feel his grandpa's loneliness, but felt helpless. 

Do you have any 

questions that don't 
have easy answers? 

IHe did not know what he could do about it. 

There were many questions in Anbu's mind. Why did he have to live in the city? 
Why did Appa have to woric in a big company? Sometimes he would ask his 
grandfather. The old man would answer, 'Life moves on... maybe some day you will 
go back to the land that gives you life and food." 

Anbu's mother loved her husband 
and her young son. But she did not 
understand the loneliness of her 
father-in-law. It had been different 
when she had gone to Karamadai. 
TherSi she had seen a very 
different side of her husband's 
father. He was strong and capable 
and she had felt happy. Here, he 
seemed to have shrunk in size, he 

was weak and helpless, and stayed at home. She was not used to talking to him, and 
found very little to share. Sometimes she was very impatient with him, especially the 
days when his hands trembled, and hedropped what hewas holding in his hands. 

One morning at breakfast, grandfather's old hands shook so much that his 
coffee spilled on the clean white table clothi and the glass slipped and broke into 
many pieces. Anbu's mother spoke harshly to grandfather. Observing this, and 
unable to eat any more breakfast. An bu got up and went away. After that, grandfather 
had to eat all his meals alone in the kitchen. Anbu kept quiet about this new 
an^ngement. So did Anbu's father. Anbu was scared that if he confronted his mother, 
she would ask him, "Are you ready to stay at home and clean the mess every day?" 

Now, grand^ther began telling Anbu stories in the evenings. His stories were 
different from grandma's stories. They were about birds and grain and ants and goats 
and all the things that he had loved and observed so keenly when he was fanning. 
Anbu was so happy! The littleverandah where they sat became a wonderland, where 
there was no pain, and they could roam happily, hand-ln-hand. In an Imaginary 

As he grew older, Grandpa's hands shook more and more. One night his hand 
trembledi and he dropped his bowl of porridge. The pomdge spilled all over the 
kitchen floor and the bowl broke into many pieces. 

confronted: faced 
imaginary: not real 

Anbu's father and mother, closely followed by the child, hastened to the 
kitchen. "Oh, Nof My beautiful cerannic bowl!" wailed his mother. 

<:eramlc: baked and 

glazed clay 
availed: cried loudly 
torrent: strong flow 

She burst Into a tenant of words. She said that she had decided to give the old 
man food in a wooden bowl. Anbu was very upset, not only 
by the anger on his mother's face, but also by the look of 
fear on his grandfather's face. His grandpa was scared! 
Anbu's father left the room. Anbu watched silently, as she 
cleaned up the floor, mumnurlng and mumbling all 
the while. 

Suddenly Anbu took a small piece of wood 
fifom the side of the shelf and began to whittle it, 
keeping his eyes on the broken bowl as though it 
were a model. His parents, curious to see what he 
was doing, went over to him. 

"What are you doing Anbu?" asked him 
mother fondly. 


Tm making a wooden bowl, for you to have, when you grow old," answered 


Anbu's mother and father were too ashamed to meet Anbu's eyes. For a 
minute, perhaps, they had a glimpse of what their own future might be like. 

Then his mother took grandfather's arms and led him back to the dining table 
and helped him while he was eating. 

Anbu was happy again. As he watched 
his parents, Anbu realized that they too were 
experiencing a new and wonderful happiness. 

whittle: shape wood with a knife 
glimpse: a look 


1. What would Anbu's father tell him? 

2. What was the special bond that Anbu and his grandfather shared? 

3. After his grandnnother died, what did the family decide to do? 

4. What made Anbu's grandfather unhappy in Coimbatore? 

5. How did his grandfather's weakness affect Anbu's mother? 

6. Why did Anbu's mother say that his grandfather would be fed in a wooden bowl? 

7. Why did Anbu start making a wooden bowl? 

Pick out the words and phrases that describe the thoughts and feelings of 
Anbu's grandfather. Write them in whichever way you like in the box given below: 

What kind of a person is Anbu? Match the following columns, and find outi 

Wiat the narrative says 

What I understand about Anbu 

Attention did not spoil him. 

Anbu knew and valued his grandfattier's love of 
the land 

His friends wouid taii him not to iive in Vf\e\ 
past - he wouid Iceep siient. \ 

Anbu was happy that his grandfather loved and 
trusted him. 

With his grandfather, Anbu shared a silent 

Anbu was not egoistic 

Anbu was unhappy about ttie decision to 
seli the land. 

Anbu was scared about what his mother would 
ask him to do 

Anbu would come back after school, and sit 
with his grandfather. 

Anbu knew that his friends might not 
understand his love for the countryside 

There were many questions in his mind... 

Anbu taught his parents a lesson without words 

Anbu got up and went away, when his 
mother scolded his grandfather. 

Anbu understood that his parents were also 
learning about life. 

Anbu was very happy when his grandpa 
told him stories 

Anbu and his grandfather shared a deep and 
quiet affection 

Anbu toolc a piece of wood and started 
whittling it. 

Anbu was confused and helpless about his 
grandfather's loneliness 

Anbu realized that his parents too were 
experiencing a new and wonderful 

Anbu showed his love for his grandfather by 
spending time witii him. 

LET US UNDERSTAND: Discuss in groups and present a report. 

How can I support the old people in my life? 

What do i understand fr^m the story? 

Do you share a bond with anyonOp like Anbu's with his 


Are Old Age 

Homes inevitable 
for ail people In 

Savithri Vaithi, who runs Vishranthi Home For the Aged, 
has this to say - "Most definiteiy, no institution can replace the 
family! The love and care that one receives from a family is 
irrepiaceabie. Why should someone pay money for love and care? 

The system that has long been upheld and glorified is the family system. India 
for sure is getting developed in every way but along with it we will have to accept the 
disintegration of the institution of family." 


Syllables help you to spell and pronounce words correctly. Words are made up 
of syllables. Sonne words such as I, come, eat, fish, see, have only one syllable 

i.e; only one vowel sound. 

The underlined letters have one vowel sound. 


come, eat 

The word 'eat' has two vowel letters but when pronounced it has only one 
vowel sound like 'ee' in Tamil. The words like 'ago and above' have two vowel sounds. 
A vowel sound can be stretched for a longer period than consonant sounds. 

Try saying 'a, e, I, o, u' and try saying 'p, k, t'. and note the difference. 
Asyllable must have a vowel sound. 

Pick out words from this story that are: 

One syllable long: 
1. bond 

Two syllables long : 
1. sorrow 

Three syllables long : 
1. wonderful 

Four and more syllables long : 
1 . Karamadai 


Rean'ange the given prefix, base and suffix to fonn a word that matches the 
meaning given: 



jumbled words 


Prefix Base Suffix 

employ ed un 

having no work 

un employ ed 

ibie in vis 

not able to be seen 

ment agree dis 


appear dis ing 

going out of sight 

mark able re 

out of the ordinary 

arm dis ed 

having no weapons 

understand mis ing 


joint dis ed 

not connected well 


See how 'e', the last letter, which is usually silent, is dropped before taking on the 
suffix '-ing' or 'tion'. Use the rule and fill in the blanks. 







+ ing 
+ ion 








A. Add a prefix or suffix to the root words given below, and write them under the prefix 

or suffix. One has been done for you in each group, 
i) un in im ness ful unable 

Root words: 
ii) able, decent, perfect, kind, wonder, 

happy, correct, patient, good, hope 

tele tion un in im 



iii)1. likely 


Root words: 

1 . violence 

4. logic 

2. finite 3. possible 4. vision 

able non 11 

5. examine. 

ize al 

2. channel 
5. fashion 

3. legible 
6. with 

Vicky: How did your 
English test go? 

John: Okay. But I 
forgot the past tense 
of think'. I thought 
and I thought and 
then wrote thinked I 

GRAMMAR- [Tenses]: 

Let us first revise what a verb is. A verb describes a state of 
being or an action. 

a) Read this nursery jingle and underline the state of being verbs. 

'Roses are red, 

Violets are blue, Sugar is sweet, And so are you'. 

b) Pick out the verbs in the following sentences. Say whether they are action 
verbs or state verbs. 
i) Pride goes before a fall, 
ii) As you sow, so you reap, 
ill) Time and tide wait for nobody, 
iv) She is tired of writing. 

Verbs change their fomns according to the time of occurrence. Fill in the table with 
the right form of the verbs given in brackets: 

Simple Present Tense 

Simple Past Tense 

The sun 

(rise) In the east. 

Yesterday 1 (go) to the beach. 

He usually _ 

(wear) a white 

India (become) independent 


in 1947, 



1 (visit) Delhi a month 

Christmas on 

25* Dec. every year. 



(shine) at night. 

Akbar (ruie) India well. 


Pair Work: Make meaningful sentences from the following tables: 
Present Continuous Tense ['be' verb + ing] 














Past Continuous Tense ['be' verb + ing] 







when the lights went out. 
guests came, 
a cat came in 


Future Continuous Tense [shall / will + be + ing] 



shall * be 
wNI + be 


to Chennai 

next week 

LET US LEARN: (Individual / Pair Work) 
A. Abirami has drawn a picture. 

Monica has finished reading. 

He has read five books so far. 
The underlined verbs show actions just completed. 
These verbs are in the Present Perfect Tense. 
The format of the Present Perfect Tense is (has / have + verb) 


1 . We use the Present Perfect tense to talk about an action in the past without 

stating the exact time of the action. 



We visited the Science 
Museum yesterday. 

We ftave visited the Science Museum 

The bird in the cage ffewaway 
1 iast weefr. 

The bird in the cage lias flown away. 


Your example: 

2. We use the Present Perfect tense to talk about an action that started in the past 
and is still going on. 


I have taught in this school for three years. 

Your example: 

3. We form the Present Perfect tense in this way: 
has / have + past participle of verb 


have + completed : The engineers have completed the project, 
has + taken : Lily has taken her son to the clinic. 
Your example: 


Tick the correct sentences. 

^ Dad polished his shoes yesterday. 

^ Subhash has cut the vegetables just now. 

^ The ripe fruit has fallen from the tree. 

^ The spectators have throw rubbish all over the field last night. 

^ The police have catch the motorcyclist for speeding. 

Correct the wrong sentences. 

4. The Present Perfect tense is used to describe an action which has 
been completed, finished or done just now or a little while ago but near the Present 

It is a kind of link between the Past and the Present. 
'Has + done' give a sense of 'Present + Past'. 
I have finished the work just now. 
He has posted the letter today. 
Your example: 


5. The Present Perfect tense is used to indicate that the action has taken place 
sometime in the Past (it may be long back), but the action so completed in the 
Past has its effect In the Present Time. 

The meeting has not started yet. ( I find it at present.) 

He has not returned my pen. (. . . And at present i feel bad about it!) 

Ajay has eaten all the biscuits. (Therefore, nothing is left to give you.) 

Your example: 


1 . When we refer to completed actions in the past, we can 
use different Pasttense forms to indicate what we mean. 

Examples: Simple Past Tense 

They came immediately 
When we entered the hall, 

Your example: 

Simple Past Tense 
when we called them, 
the lecture began. 
(We were just in time.) 

We use the Past Perfect Tense for an action or situation that happened earlier 
and the Simple PastTense for the action or situation that happened later. 

Past Perfect Tense 
The bell had rung 
The rain had stopped 

Your example: 

Simple PastTense 

when Rajesh entered the school 

when the Minister arrived. 

We use the Past Perfect Tense with words like already and just to refer to actions 
which were completed before a specific time in the past. 


Examples: Dad had already confirmed ourtickets before we leftforthe station. 
Dad had just finished his dinner when the phone rang. 

Your example: ^ 

3. We use the Past Perfect tense with indefinite time words and phrases like always 
and more than once to refer to repeated actions in the past. 


I had always suspected that Brian was to blame for the accident. 

Before I left the workshop, the mechanic had reminded me more than once to 

check the tyres. 

Your example: 


Cross out the incorrect verb forms to complete the sentences. 

1 . They have emphasized/had emphasized the importance of the course to 
all those present before they introduced the speakers. 

2. We passed/had passed through the entrance of the monastery when we heard 
the ringing of bells. 

3. Tom and Abbas always disagreed/had always disagreed about this issue, 
and so I wasn't surprised when Tom spoke this time. 

4. Ami and I hadn't done/haven't done our project, and so we didn't submit it. 

5. The two children have fallen /had fallen ill after the trip and were taken to the 
clinic for treatment. 



The Future Perfect Tense is used to refer to completion of an activity at a definite 
point in future. 

Future Perfect Tense: [sliall /will + have + past participle] 
i) They will have reached Delhi next Tuesday, 
ii) I shall have completed the project by the end of August, 
iii) Zeenath will have written the examination by this time tomorrow. 

Your example: 


Now use the lines and complete the following sentences using the Future Perfect 
Tense of the verbs given in brackets : 
Example : 

i) by September the foundation (lay). 

ii) by December the walls (raise). 

iii) by Pongal the windows and doors (put) up. 

iv) the ROC roofing (finish) by February. 

v) we will have land the foundation by September 

ACTIVITY: Use the Present, Past and Future Perfect Tenses of the verbs in brackets. 

i) My friend (write) many novels so far. 

ii) The committee (settle) the problem by next January. 

iii) When motherwent into the kitchen the cat (drink) the milk. 

iv)Sachin (occupy) the first place in the Indian cricket world. 

v) By August, my brother Uoin) college. 


Here is a small story outline for you to develop, using the right tense form of the 

verbs given in brackets:- 

Ashok saw a young girl-20 years ago in Erode- looked tired and hungry- on her 
way back from school-fsearch) his pockets-(find) a biscuit-(give) it to her-(walk) a 
little distance-(stand) watching- a skinny dog (come) by- the girl (break) the biscuit 
into two- (give) one half to the dog- (be) He- (move) by the largeness of her heart. 


Try to imagine this incident and add other details to this outline, to make it 
more interesting! 



Read a paragraph from the Prose Passage with clarity and correct 
pronunciation and intonation. 

SPEAKING -Pair work. 

Take turns with your partner and read the dialogue. 










Hello! This is Sundar. Can I speak to Sam? 

Holdtheline, please. I'll call him. (after a few seconds) 

Hi! Sundar, how are you? 

Fine, thank you. Why haven't you been coming to the computer class? 

Well. I had to help my grandma. She was suffering from 'chickungunya'. 

I had to support her with my sister Sarojini. 

Oh, really, that's good. You are so kind to your grandma. 

I am not being kind. I do it because I love her. 

True! But old people require additional love and care whenthey become 

sick. Keep it up. Will you join us this week? 

Sure, My grandmother is fine now. So I'll come to class. 




In Preparation 

A grandma is always special. Wliat does your grandma mean, in your iife? 

in tlie poem 'My Grandmother's i-iouse', Kamaia Surayya writes about tier 
chiidhood in Kerala. She contrasts her present iife in which she begs for love "at 
least in small change" [not wholly or completely] 'at stranger's doors' [from 
people she doesn't know well] with her childhood in her grandmother's house, 
where she experienced love in abundance, without ever having to ask for it. IHer 
language is lively and imaginative. 

There is a house now faraway where once 

I received love... That woman diedi 

The house withdrew Into si lencOi snakes moved 

Among books I was then too young 

To read, and my blood turned cold like the moon. 

How often I think of going 

There, to peer through blind eyes of windows or 

J ust I isten to the frozen air, 

Or in wild despalrj pick an armful of 

Darkness to bring it here to lie 

Behind my bed room door like a brooding 

Dog... you cannot believe, darling, 

Can you, that I lived in such a house and 

Was proud, and loved... I who have lost 

My way and beg now at stranger's doore to 

Receive love, at least in small change. 

-Kamaia Surayya. 

now far away - Kamaia Das 
lives in Mumbai which is quite 
far from Kerala. 
peer- look narrowly 
despair -loss of hope 
darkness - want of light 
peer through blind eyes of 
windows - darkness is all 
that one can see through the 
vi/indows of a closed house. 
brooding -thinking over 




1 . Where did Kamala feel loved? 

2. What happened to that place? 

3. What does she often think of doing? 

4. Why does Kannaia call the windows 'blind eyes'? 

4. What does Kamala hope to hear from the 'frozen air' in her grandma's place? 

5. What maizes Kamala experience 'wild despair'? 

6. What maizes Kamala say, 'you cannot believe, can you?' to the person she 
addresses in the poem? 

7. What words does Kamala use to describe her feelings? What do they tell you? 

8. What has happened to Kamala now? 

Note 1 : In a city, even neighbours remain strangers, because of the busy lives 
people lead. The total security and warmth that Kamala Surayya experienced in her 
grandma's house, has gone from her life. The loneliness that she feels, drives her to 
talk to people whom she does not know very well, for whatever warmth and comfort 
she can get. 

Do you feel lonely sometimes in class? What do you do when you feel that way? 


Note 2: Kamala uses the 'metaphor' or image of ^A/ealth' to describe what she felt - 
in her grandma's house, she was weaithy in love and safety. Now she feeis iil<e a poor 
beggar- who has no affection in her life, and has to ask for it. 


Choose ttie cotrect answer to the Mlowing: 

A. The house withdrew into silence 
This line means that 

a) the house was haunted 

b) nobody lived there any more 

c) Kamala couldn't receive love from her grandmother or interact with her 

B. My blood turned cold like the moon 
This line means that 

a) she didntfeei warm and ioved, but desoiate like the moon 

b) she became a vampire, 

c) she leamt that the moon was coid 

C. Listen to the frozen air 
This phrase means that 

a) the icy air speaks to her 

b) she feels very weak and tired 

c) life in that house froze into stillness when her grandma died. 

D. Or in wild despair, pick an armful of 
Daricness to bring It here to lie 
Behind my bedroom door like a brooding dog... 

These lines tell us that 

a) the poet's dog was brooding behind the door. 

b) the daricness in her grandma's place and made her feel secure, and she wants 
some of it to be with her, like a loyal dog. 

c) there was darkness behind her bed room door. 


The main idea in the poem is that 

a) we should not neglect grandmothers. 

b) we should learn to appreciate our parents' love. 

c) Kamala received deep affection from her grandmother, 
and she misses it now. 


Where and with whom have you felt safe and cared for? Write five lines about it. 


Supplementary Reading 

Apsara had just shifted with her parents to a new 
neighbourhood, and she was happy to have got admission to 
Ciass Viii in the iocal school. On herfirst day of schooi, her father 
accompanied her, and she nervously waited to meet the 
Principai. Sudden iyi through the corner of her eye, she saw a girl 
iaughing as she ran through the conridor. 'IHow I wish i could be 
iil<e that girl,' she thought to herseif. 'She seems so happy!' 

When she went Into the Principai's office Mrs.Rose, the Principai, greeted 
them kindiyj and asiced, 'isn't Apsara's mother here?" 
i-ierfathergave an evasive repiy, and they tail^ed of other 
things. But Apsara feit sad. Why couidn't her mother be 
iii<e other mothers? Mrs. Rose, asked another student, 
Seivi, to come and take her to ciass. 

Are there times when you 
feei both happy and sad? 
Mention one such time. 

imagine Apsara*s surprise, when she found that it was the same 
girl whom she had seen laughing as she rani Seivi soon became 
her best friend. Both girls enjoyed learning and playing. They 
participated happily in all the activities at school. 

evasive : avoiding 
twinge : sudden 

movement or pain 

It was a month after their Half-Yearly Examination that 

the school announced that they were going to honour all 

mothers and care-givers on School Day. "Please bring 

along the people who love and care for you," said Mrs. Rose, at the Morning 

Assembly. "A mother is anyone who loves you and looks after you." Apsara was both 

happy and sad as she heard the news. She was unable to focus on any activity at 

school, throughout the day. 


Her friends asked her, 'What is wrong, Apsi?" but she 
couldn't answer. iHow couid she teli them that she was ashamed 
to bring her mother to schooi? iHer mind went down memory iane, 
and she remembered the first time her mother had come to her 
previous schooi. 

it was a bright moming in August. The school was pianningfora Culturai Show, 
and aii parents of Ciass V had been calied for a Parent-Teacher meeting. Usualiy, her 
father dropped and piclced her up, and attended aii the meetings. But he had gone 
awayonworki and her mothersaid she would come that day. For the first time, Apsara 
'iooi<ed' at her mother, and experienced her first twinge of doubt, i-ier classmates had 
taiked so proudly of their mothers - one of them said her mother had participated in 
teievision programmes, besides being a Manager in an office. Another student who 
iived with his grandmother said that she was a 'super* grandma - she could do so 
many things! Apsara's mother found itdifFicultto move fast, though she did aii the work 
at home, since a fire accident had affected both her neck and her knee joints. Her 

father had always said that she was beautifui, but Apsara 
wondered if herciassmates wouid think so. 

Have you ever 
iaeen hurt by things 
|3eopie didn't say? 

And they didn't! Her 
mother took a great deai of 
trouble to dress we! I for the meeting. But when she 
came to schooi, Apsara was shocked and hurt 
beyond words by what she saw in the eyes of both 
her teachers and her classmates. "What is wrong 
with my mother? She is my mother, isn't she? Why do the teachers iook so pitying?" 
she thought. She overheard one of her ciassmates telling another, "Did you see 
Apsara's mother? She looks like a monster!" Things were never the same for Apsara 
after that day. It wasnt only what people said. It was also what they didn't say. She 
continued to study well, and played all games enthusiastically. But her classmates 
had ceased to treat her as 'nomnar. 


Thinking bacl< on that awful experience now, 
Apsara decided to tell her mother to find an excuse 
not to come to the tea party. She went home troubled. 

When she reached home, her motherasked her, 

'Why do you look so tired and unhappy today?" 

Apsara told her what had been announced at the 

"And you would prefer that I didn't come?" asked 

Apsara broke down. "Well, since you ask, yes, I wouldl' she said, crying. "I 
dont want anyone to say that you aren't beautiful! I don't want anyone to call you 
a... a... monster!" 

She put her head down on her mother's lap. Her mother gently stroked her hair, 
and wiped her hot wet face with her 'duppatta'. 

"But do you know, Apsara, I don't feel bad about my scars at alH" 
she said. 

"When you were just one year old, I was about to give you a bath. When 
I switched on the water heater there was a sudden short circuit and the heater burst. 
Before I could realize it, there was fire everywhere, and quickiy spreading. I called out 
for your father, rushing through the fire. I threw you into your father's arms and 
fainted. When i woke up, I was in the emergency ward and critically ill. After a great 
struggle they were able to save my life, but not my neck and face". By now tears were 
flowing down Apsara's cheeks. She ran and kissed her mothers face, and came 
upon a new resolve. ''Ma, it doesn't matter what they think. I want the whole world to 
see my mother," she vowed. 


That's truly brave of you, my dear!" said her mother smiling. 

On the day of the tea party, Apsara toolc her mother to Mrs. 
Rose's room and proudly announced, This is my mother." And to her 
great surprise and happiness, Mrs. Rose did not flinch at all I Neither 
did the teachers! They all smiled and talked to her mother as if they 
could actually see the person beneath the scars I The biggest surprise of all was when 
Selvi wheeled her mother in. One or two of her classmates were helping her. "What 
happened to your mother, Selvi?" asiced Apsara, before she could stop herself. "Oh, 
she had an accident when she was driving her moped, and lost her legs," said Selvi. 
''A rash motorist banged into her and there was a bus just behind. We were lucky that 
the doctors could save her life." She smiled fondly at her mother. 

flinch : shrink back 

Apsara realized many things that day. Most importantly, she realized that 
beauty lies in the heart, and in the mind. It lies in the way we face life's challenges, not 
in the challenges themselves. 


1 . Which class was Apsara studying in? 

2. What was her school planning to do? 

3. What was she reminded of ? 

4. What had happened, in her old school? 


5. What did her mother share with Apsara? 

6. What did Apsara discover, when she took her mother to meet IVIrs. Rose? 

7. What did she find out, about Selvi's mother? 

8. What did Apsara learn that day? 


Worl< in small groups and share 

IVIany changes happen in Apsara's mind and heart. Fill in the lines in the story 
that tell you what she feels. One has been done for you . 

Apsara's feelings 

Lines from the story 

longing [to be like Selvi] 

'How 1 wish 1 could be like that girl,' she thought to 
herself. 'She seems so happy!' 

sad and happy 

upset [memory] 

doubtful [previous 

deeply hurt 

sad and troubled [now] 

deeply moved 

surprised and happy 

new learning 


Write an Informal Letter 

Mv dearest Patti/Aava/Grandma/Daadi/Naani, 

Thank vou for vour letter. Appa/Amma is 
are well. [Write about anyone else vou wantl 


. All at home 


. In school, 

. 1 have 


Do vou know, 


1 will spend mv holidavs 

1 am lookina fonrt^ard to 

1 hope vou 

. How 



1 remember the stories 

, and 
. 1 also remember 

. 1 am 1 

looking forward to seeing vou 

. Take 1 


care of vourself, and don't forget to ! 1 

Your loving grand_ 


1 am going to competition this 
specially for me on that day! 






In this unit an attempt has been made to enable children realize the role of 
women in today's world. There are also deeper questions embedded in the text, The 
Power of Laughter'. It speaks of how different our world could be, if our societies built 
themselves around compassion for all. You could also help children to listen to 
selected words, and observe and practice word stress. The teacher should 
pronounce all the new words and make the children repeat them correctly. The 
comprehension questions given beside each paragraph must be done and 
appropriate answers are to be discussed. A reading comprehension passage is given 
where students arrange the sentences in logical sequence. There are antonyms with 
prefix 'dis', 'im', 'un' used along with a crossword puzzle, true or false statements, and 
dramatization to facilitate learning. 

The grammar in communication covers Gerunds, Participles and Infinitives 
with examples to follow. Exercises such as fill in the blanks, substitution table, 
choosing the correct grammatical word for each of the above topics, are given. 

The poem an extremely child-friendly one You Can't Be That, No, You Can't 

Be That by Brian Patten describes each one's ambition in life and how it differs from 
person to person. Children need to be encouraged to pursue their dreams in life, 
whatever they may be. They can discuss their dreams and ambitions along with the 
other members of their group and how they will work towards achieving them. 

In the supplementary reading section, they will read about Saralabehn, a 
woman of great courage who fought for justice and truth. She pleads with people and 
arouses their interest to save the forests and never to give up until they succeed in 
their struggle to protect the environment. Slogans and captions on keeping the 
environment clean or its protection, can be written. Children may be encouraged to 
reflect upon what courage implies. There is an additional Language Enrichment 
story, called It's Who You Are, That Matters, that builds upon the skills of 
sequencing and summarizing. Children should also be encouraged to write poems 
and essays using their creativity, and also role play and debate. 



In Preparation 

Do we need to be supervised, in order to be good? 
Do we need to build high walls, in order to be safe? 
Can we live and let live, without the fear of punishment? 

And..xan we laugh? 

Long, long ago, there was a village 
without a headnnan. There was complete 
harmony among the villagers. Everybody 
helped each other and had care and concern 
for all. Into such a village came a stranger. He 
boasted to the villagers of how he had solved all 
problems he had faced in the village he came 
from. He said he had fought and defeated the 
enemies of that village. Since everyone in that 
village was dead, he did not want to stay on 
there. So here he was, a brave and 
experienced headman, ready to help this 
village - his new home - to fight its enemies. 

In words and phrases 

1. What did the stranger look like? 

2. Who brought peace and 
happiness to people around? 

3. Where did the headman live? 

4. What did he do all day? 

5. What was the punishment for 
those who laughed? 

gashed: badly cut 
grim: unattractive 

He looked impressive. He was at least six feet tall, and 
had a face gashed with grim scars and a deep voice. But no 
one knew what to do with the stranger's offer to help. 

"You see, we really don't have any enemies," said a middle aged woman. She 
wove beautiful baskets, and did many things with love and concern for the people 
around her. Many a time, her wise decision-making had brought peace back after a 
quarrel. Now, she told the stranger, "We really don't have any enemies." 

"A village without enemies?" he asked, and then answered his own question, 
"Impossible! You're lucky I came here in time to save all of you." 


The basket weaver opened her eyes wide, as if screwing up courage to talk to 

this scary looking stranger, and asked hesitantly, "Sir - Do we have some secr et 

enemies? Do you know who they are?" beamed: smiled happily 

loftily: in a superior way 

The stranger beamed at her. "There are all kinds of enemies," 
he informed her loftily. 

"There's the kind of enemy who wants the water from your lakes and rivers. 
Then, there is the kind of enemy who wants all your money. There is yet another kind 
of enemy, who thinks of you as his enemy, so what can you do but make him your 
enemy first? 

The stranger warned them in a dramatic whisper, "Even now, while you are 
wasting time looking for your enemies, your enemy is getting ready - cleverly, 
cunningly, - to come and defeat you." 

The headman's speech got the people thinking. They agreed thatthis was very 
bad. How could they have been so innocent? And how were they going to fight when 
they had never gone to a battle before? Maybe they needed someone mean and 
tough like this war hero to be their leader? 

"Since this stranger is experienced, why don't we make him our headman?" 
said a young man. That is how the stranger became one of them. Not just one of them, 
but their new all powerful village headman who was going to prepare them for battle. 

A few months had gone by. The village seemed to 
have changed completely. So completely, that they, its 
makers and citizens barely recognized it. All the walls 
in the village grew taller day by day. There were a lot of 
new jobs for people - for things like sticking crushed 
glass on the new tall walls surrounding every building, 
enclosing houses and trees with barbed wire and piling up sandbags at the corner of 


every street so that groups of fierce looking men 
could hide behind them. Every house now had a 
peculiar kind of chimney - what iooked iike a 
chimney was reaiiy a spy hole. Disguise shops 
had opened up on every street and were doing 
brisk business. 

Schoois had repiaced subjects iike 
iiterature, arithmetic and science with the art of 

spying on enemies, 

In words and phi 

1. Why did the viilagers accept 
the stranger as their ieader? 

2. Where did the headman 

3. What did he do aii day? 

dramatic: exaggerated 
spy hole: a piece from 
which one can iook 
without being seen 
backstabber: one who 
hits from the back 
double-crosser: one 
who promises and then 

on your neighbours, and even spying on your best 
friends. Neighbourhoods gave prizes for the best 
backstabber and double Grosser of the week, and the 
most passionate hater, it seemed naturai then that the 
only animals ieft in the viliage were fierce watch dogs 
trained to bite and tear apart anyone who iooked iike an 

The viiiage headman moved into the best house in the 
viilage, a house iike a bungaiow. He sat aii day in a huge, 
plush throne-like chair, consuiting his growing band of war /^ 

experts, weapon-makers, spies and astroiogers. One day, the viliage 
headman asked his chief astroioger when he wouid die. "Not for a 
iong time," fawned the oily man, and added in desperation, "not tiii 
the viiiage overflows with fun and laughter." IHe thought that this was a 
good answer. There was so iittie iaughter in the viiiage. The headman 
didn't iike this prediction one bit. IHe cailed a meeting of ail peopie in 
the viiiage. 

"We must be prepared," he said to them. "We have to eat and 
sieep and breathe hate for our enemies, if we want to win. There's no 
ti me for siiiy things like fun and laughter. So from today, no iaughter in 
this city, ifs banned." 

plush: iuxurious 
fawned: pretended 
to honour 


The great village became a silent one. And since no one was allowed to laugh, 
laughter died. So did a lot of other things. How for example, could you have dance and 
music, sports and festivals, or just plain old noise without laughter? People started 
falling ill. The doctors suddenly became very important people. 

The basket weaver decided she had to do 
something. She spent hour after hour in the village 
corner looking at passers- by, hoping for inspiration. 
She saw that everyone badly needed to laugh. Then 
an idea struck her. There was an old banyan tree that 
had been in the village for as long as she could 
remember. The tree was so old that its trunk was 
hollow. The woman remembered the games she and her friends had played when 
they were children hiding inside the tree trunk, and scaring unsuspecting villagers. 

Suddenly, the woman grinned and ran to find her army -the one 

that would fight the new village headman's reglme._The basket 

weaver was never at a loss! Gopal, Kevin, 

Nasira, and Kannagi - were the basket 

weaver's army. Not one of them was more 

than ten years old. One after the other, her 
army slipped into the hollow tree trunk. The trunk had the odd 
hole or two, so they had no trouble, breathing, or peeping. 

oily: flattering 
unsuspecting: not 
regime: rule 
never at a loss: 

It was a bit of a tight squeeze, but they didn't mind it 
Then, the woman made sure a new rumour spread Mice wild fire. The rumour was 

that in their iaughterless village, there was a big old banyan tree in the village comer 
that had taken to laughing. Every time someone passed the old banyan tree, the tree 
would laugh. And what a laugh it was! A laugh that began like an innocent, playful little 
giggle, grew so loud and noisy that it 
became a great big wave. No one 
could pass the tree without getting 
infected. Everyone wanted to laugh! 

tight squeeze : crowded 

rumour : false story 

spread like wild fire : passed on very fast 


In words and ph rasas 

What happened every time 
someone passed the banyan 

What happened to the 
headman as he neared the 
banyan tree? 
What did he yell? 

One of the village headman's spies, a 
frowning old tattletale, passed by and began to 
laugh helplessly. The headman's chief weapon- 
maker had to be rushed to the doctor, because he 
was laughing so much that he had a temble 
stomach ache. The basket weaving woman 
couldn't help laughing either. The furious 
headman went to the village corner. When he 
reached the banyan tree, and heard its laughter 
the headman too felt like laughing aloud. He 
almost did, but covered his mouth, and turned it 
into a hoarse cough. "Chop that tree!" he managed to yell! 

IHis chief tree-cutters came running with axes. But once they got close to the 
tree, they found themselves pelted with tiny stones from inside its trunk, as if there 
was a band of teasing monkeys hiding there. And even while they were being hit by 
the stones, the tree cutters were laughing so much they could 
hardly hold on to their axes. 

tattle tale: sneak 
pelted: hit 

The headman took the basket weaver aside, and asked, 'Whafs happened to 
this tree? Is it possessed?" 

'Yes sir, I think you are right" said the woman wiping the tears of laughter off 
her face. "It looks like a bad case, sir. Maybe it's some magic. Could our enemies have 
done something to this tree?" But for once, the ^^ _^ 

headman didn't care about the enemy. The mT j^ ^-^r^ J 
headman remembered the astrologer's prediction: ff^^t^v^^^ T 
that he, the fighting headman, would die the day 
laughter came back to the people of the village. And 
besides, all this laughter was making the headman 
fieel positively sick. 

"I have to pack," he told the woman. I'm in a hurry. If anyone asks, will you tell 
them I've had to rush to another city that needs my help?" He rushed away in panic. 


The basket weaver didn't have to tell anyone anything. The minute the 
headman ran away from the village, the woman heard a burst of clapping, a chorus of 
cheering, drums, pipes, anklets, and lots of laughter. The villagers were astounded to 
see four little children, two boys, and two girls, crawl out of the old banyan tree. 

The children were laughing. 


1 . Who was the newstrangerof the village? 

2. Who were the three kinds of enemies, according to the headman? 

3. What did the headman ask people to do with a person who thinks of you as 
his / her enemy? 

4. What did he say the enemies were doing? 

5. What were the changes in the village? Write 3-5 sentences. 
[5points-walls,chimneyspyholes, education, neighbourhood, animals] 

6. What did the headman ask his astrologer? 

7. Why was laughter banned in the village? 

8. Whatdid the basket weaver notice? 

9. What did she decide to do? [2 lines] 


10. Who was rushed to the doctor? Why? 

11 . Who were the members of her army? How old were the children? 

12. What was the question the headman posed to the lady? 

13. Why did the headman leave the village? 

14. What did the people do, as soon as the headman left? 

Discuss and share [Write 5 iines] 

1 . What are your impressions about the headman? What sort of a person do you 
think he is? 

2. What were the changes in the village? Fill in and share. [Small Group/Pair] 


when we have no enemies 

when everyone is an enemy 


3. What different ways did the basket weaver and the headman adopt, to settle 
quarrels? Write two differences that you see. [Small Group/Pair] 

basket weaver 


What do you feel is a good way to settle quarrels? 


Let us have fun with words. Using the given clues fill in the grid. 





Clues Across 

1 . One who foretells the 

2. Exaggerate 
Clues: Down 

1. Smile happily 

2. Secretly watches people 

3. One who reveals secrets 

Compound words are formed by adding 2 or 3 words together, but used as a 
single unit. 

Read the following compound words, stressing the parts underlined. You can 
also consult a dictionary to understand how the stress is marked with a dash above 
and to the left of the syllable. 


Note : Some compound words are written side by side with a small space, some with 
a hyphen between and some fuse together. You will know the reason in 
higher classes. 

Example : 

walkie-talkie (Say 'wa' more loudly than other syllables) 
1 . broad minded 2. spell bound 3. funny bone 4. keyboard 

5. black board 

Fun with words: [pair workl 

Form antonyms using the prefix 

'dis' 'im' 'in' 'un' to the words given in column A and fill in column B. 
















State whether true |T| or false [F]: 

1 . The new headman was a soft, gentle man. 

2. The basket weaver was loved by all. 

3. The village headman changed the village 
completely for the worse. 

4. The old banyan tree came to the rescue of 
the villagers. 

5. The people in the village were sad when the 
headman left them. 

6. There were four children in the woman's army. 


What do you think the tattletales did for the rest of their lives? 



Let's look at the following sentences; 

> Walking is a good exercise. 

> Reading story books gives pleasure. 

> Can you teach painting? 

> She likes swimming. 

^ The highlighted words are known as 'gerunds' or Verbal nouns'. They are 
used as simple nouns to function as a subject or an object in a sentence. 

^ Gerunds are formed by verbs ending with 'ing'. 

I) Read the following sentences and pick out the gerunds : 

1 . Watching plays can be fun. 

2. Keeping left is always safe. 

3. Eating moderately is good for health 

4. Climbing mountains is a good sport 

5. Reading poetry teaches us many things. 


2] Read the information on the sign boards and try to form gerunds to 

compiete the sentences : 
Don't park the vehicles herel 1, Parking the vehicles here is prohibited 

Don't trespass - prohibited area 2, is prohibited. 

Don't speak iil of others 3. iii of others is a bad habit. 

Match the following : 




Eating too much 


Walking on the roof 


Watching television 

a good exercise 


a pleasant hobby 

Playing on the street 

bad for health 


Read these sentences; 
1. To err is human. 

He wants to come up in life. 

Dhanush likes to read science fiction. 

To obey the traffic rules is a must. 

You are invited to attend the party. 

The highlighted phrases denote the infinitive form of the verb. Infinitives are 

used as nouns to function as a subject or object in sentences. 
> Infinitives are formed when 'to' comes before a verb. 

1) Underline the 'infinitives' in the following sentences : 

1 . Karthiga has decided to go abroad. 

2. To get up early in the morning is good for health. 

3. David wants to study Biology. 

4. To protect the environment is the order of the day. 

5. To find fault with others is easy. 


2) Pick out at least five verbs from the list given here: 

Try to form an infinitive with those verbs and write simple sentences; 


to enrich 

Read newspapers to enrich you 









3) Rewrite the following pairs of sentences Into one, using an Infinitive for you: 

1. Sushma walks fast. She must catch the train. 
Sushma walks fast to catch the train. 

2. Kishore works hard. He will feel happy. 

3. My friend leaves for Trichy next week. He will visit his uncle there. 

4. Eat well. You will be healthy. 

5. Be positive. You can shape your attitude. 

4) Fill in the sentences with suitable infinitives given below: 
(to eat, to carry, to wear, to learn, to follow) 

* The parcel was heavy. 

* These clothes are comfortable 

^ English Is easy. 

* Her speech was difficult 

^ Apples are good 


5) Complete each of the following sentences with an infinitive of your choice. 

-^ He agreed 

^ I forgot 

^ Would you I ike 

^ They allowed her. 

iK The officer ordered his nnen 


Read this sentence; 

Seeing the tiger the man ran away. 

> 'Seeing' is a form of the 'verb' and has an object, namely, tiger. 

'Seeing' is also like an 'adjective' as it qualifies the 'noun', man. It is, 
therefore, called a Participle. 

> A participle is partly a Verb' and partly an 'adjective'. 
It is a verbal adjective. 

Now, read these sentences; 

1 . I saw a man running along the road. 

2. The child spoke with a girl selling flowers. 

3. Hearing a loud sound, they rushed out of the room. 

4. The boy cried, thin king that he would be beaten. 

In all these sentences, the highlighted words are 'present participles' as they 
indicate an unfinished action. However, the sentences given are determined by the 
'finite' verbs such as 'saw, spoke, rushed and cried'. 

You can read these sentences too : 

1 . Driven by heavy rain we took shelter under a tree. 

2. We saw a goods train loaded with grain. 

3. Stricken with grief she kept herself alone in the room. 

4. Time once lost is gone for ever. 

In the above sentences, the highlighted words are called as 'past participles' 
as they indicate the completed action. The past participles usually end with 

-ed, -d, -t or -en'. 


> Apart from the above, the present participles and the past participles are used 

as adjectives to quaiify the nouns; 

1. This Is a dancing doii. ^ ^^ 

2. Mother bought a tilting grinder. 

3. These are rotten fruits. 

4. The poiice captured the stolen jeweis. 

i-iere the words 'dancing, tilting, rotten, stolen' are quaiifying the nouns 
foiiowing them. iHowever, 'dancing and tilting' are present participles and 'rotten 
and stolen' are past participles. 

1) Underline the participles from the foiiowing sentences and say whether it is a 
present participie or a past partlcipie. 

For you: Seeing the poiice, the thief hid himself. [Present participle] 
By you : 

1 . i-iearing the noise, i woke up. 

2. it was sad to see the house bumt to ashes. 

3. Enraged, the ieader ieft the meeting. 

4. Furnishing the detaiis he requested for a job. 

5. Seema is a person ioved by aii. 

6. We met a man riding on a donlcey. 

7. The bus was driven at fuil speed. 

8. She njshed home seeing the time. 

9. They have bought a brand new cycie for themselves. 

10. A roiling stone gathers no moss 

11 . We shouid not worry about the falien leaves. 

12. Recovering from iiiness, he was very weak. 

13. We saw a man begging in the streets. 

2) Pick a few verbs in the box given beiow. 
Form a participie and write a sentence. 


For you: 

By you: 

Driven by hurry, everyone pushed the car. 
Observing the flower, they all felt happy. 








O the ice cream the children rejoiced at the park. 

O the balloon vendor, the girl was happy to buy a balloon. 

O Many children were themselves on the giant wheel. 

O the energy of the children, the teacher suggested a game. 

O We saw people to the ticket stand. 

O Children relish 


WORD PLAY: Combine words! 

Link a participle, to a noun; write it in the third grid and mention if it is the 
present of the past participle. Make two of your own, as well! 




broken furniture past participle 

First grid 

Second grid 

Third grid 

Fourth grid 








Join the pairs of sentences together using Participles. Follow the first 
example given.. 

1 . We listened to the radio. It was playing in the next room. 
We listened to the radio playing in the next room. 

2. We could smell something. It was burning in the kitchen. 

3. The farmers heard the boy. He was shouting for help. 

4. Look at the policeman. He is controlling traffic. 




What do you dream to be? Do you feel troubled by what other people think you 
should or shouldn't be? Keep your dreams! They make you who you are! 

I told them: 

When I grow up 
I'm not going to be a scientist 

Or someone who reads the news on W. 
No, a million birds will fly through me. 

I'm going to be a tree. 
They said: 
You can't be that, No, you can*t be that. 

I told them: 

When I grow up, I'm not going to be an airline pilot, 
a dancer, a lawyer, or an MC. 

No. huge whales will swim in me, I'm going to be an ocean. 

They said: C>^^ 

You can't be that. No, you can^ be that. 

I told them: 

I'm not going to be a DJ, 
a computer programmer, a musician, or beautician 

No, streams will flow through me, I'll be the home of eagles; 
I'll be full of nooks, crannies, valleys, and fountains. 

I'm going to be a range of mountains, ^^—^ 

They said: 
You can't be that. No, you can*t be that. 

I asked them: 

Just what do you think I am? 
Just a child, they said. 

And children always become at least one of the things we want them to be. 
They do not understand me. 

I'll be a stable if I want, smelling of fresh hay., 
I'll be a lost glade in which unicorns still play. 

They do not realize I can fulfill any ambition. 
They do not realize among them walks a magician. - Brian Patten 



MC : Master of Ceremonies; someone whose job is to introduce speakers 

and performers at a public event 

Disc Jockey; someone who plays CDs and records in a club, 
restaurant, and so on, or someone who introduces and plays music on 
the radio. 
Sheltered spaces 
long narrow holes or openings 

a mythical white horse like creature with a single horn growing from its 





A refrain is a chorers the repetition of a line or lines through a poem, at given 
intervals. Find the refrains in the poem. What purpose do they serve? 

Who is the T in the poem? And who does 'them' refer to? Is there a specific person, or 
could it be any young person? 


1 . In the first stanza, what doesn't the young person want to become when he/she 
grows up? 

2. What does she/he want to become? Why? 

3. In the second stanza, what doesn't the young person want to become when he/she 
grows up? 


4. And what did she/he want to become? Why? 

5. In the third stanza, what doesn't the young person want to become when he/she 
grows up? 

6. What did she/he want to become? Why? 

7. Why do 'they' feel that she/he can't be 'that'? 

8. What did 'they' say when he asked them, 'What do you think I am?' 

9. Why does he say, 'They do not understand me?' 

LET US UNDERSTAND : Discuss in small and large groups 

Work in groups of five. Discuss what each of you would like to be. Let the other 
group members repeat the refrain in the poem after each person can defend their 

Do you sometimes feel that you can't explain a deep thought or dream? 
Write about iti 


Supplementary Reading 

In preparation 

Courage means the ability to sometimes we wallcl 
aione, and thinic for ourselves. Tliere liave been peopie 
who have stood by what they thought to be right and true, 
and they provide inspiration for us all. One such person is| 
Saralabehn [behn means 'sister* in Hindi] As a Britisher, 

she supported India's struggle for freedom. There were many in England who did. But 
not all of them came to India, and spent their lives working for justice and equity in the 
Kumaon Hills. 

Let us read about iier I 

Saralabehn's name had not always been Saralabehn. Long ago, when she had 
lived with her parents in England, it had been Catherine Mary Heilman. 

One day, young Catherine heard about Mahatma Gandhi and the freedom 
movement in India. "I must join the Indian people in their struggle," Catherine said, 'Yor 
they are fighting for freedom, tnjth and justice." 

That is how she came to India and met Mahatma Gandhi who spoke to her 
about the country and its people. Young Catherine was inspired by Mahatma 
Gandhi's words. However, he wamed her that most of the people of India lived in the 
villages and were poor. 

"Can you live with them and work with them?" asked Gandhiji. 
"I can and I will", answered Catherine. 

She made her home in the villages in the Kumaon hills and worked among the 
people there. 

She began to call herself Saraladevi and she started a school for giris where 
they leamtto care for the earth. They learnt about their environment, the Kumaon hills 


in the Himalayas, the rivers that begin there and the forest which is their home. 
They learnt how the forest looked after them. 

"The forests look after our needs. We in turn must look after our forests," she 
told her students. Years passed, but Saralabehn never lost touch with Gandhiji and 
the freedom movement. 

In August 1942, Gandhiji started the 'Quit India Movement' and decided to 
launch a non-violent call to force the British to leave India. News reached the village 
that the people of the country had risen against the British. "Quit India immediately!" 
they shouted too. The angry British rulers put thousands in jail. Saralabehn joined the 
freedom fighters and led them in the Kumaon district. The hills came alive with the cry 
of "Quit India". She went from valley to valley, helping the women whose men had 
been jailed. This did not please the British and very soon Saralabehn was herself put 
behind bars! 

In 1947, India became free and the freedom fighters came out of the jails. 
There was much joy when India became independent. "Now our problems are over," 
sang everyone. But they were wrong. The struggle was not over; there were other 
battles to fight. 

Saralabehn saw selfish people in their greed for money come to the Himalayan 
forests for their rich timber. They cut down the trees and carried them away in their 

They did not care that when they destroyed the forests, they were destroying 
the homes of the people. They only thought about the money they would make. 
Saralabehn saw all this with horror. All her life, she had fought for justice and truth. "It 
is no different now, "she told herself. We must fight the evil forces that are destroying 
our beloved Himalayan forests." 

Once more, she put herself into the struggle- a new kind of struggle this time- a 
struggle for the earth, its soil, its forests, its rivers and lakes against the greed and 
stupidity of humans. She wrote many books, articles and letters on the subject and 
roused the people against the dangers of hurting the environment. With her followers, 


she went from village to village, working to prevent the traders from cutting down the 
old and beautiful trees. 

"We must never give up", she cried "We must save our forests, our Himalayas, 
our environment." Saralabehn did not live to see the end of her struggle. She became 
ill and her condition rapidly deteriorated. But through all her pain, her thoughts were 
about her people and their environment. 

"Remember," she whispered as she lay dying, "the struggle to save the forest 
is not easy. But we must not give it up. It must go on". To this day, the people of the 
Kumaon hills tell their children and grandchildren the story of this brave women and 
herwonderful life. 


1 . Where did Catherine Mary Heilman live? 

2. What was she fascinated by and what did she do? 

3. Why did she change her name to Saraladevi? 

4. What did she do, in the Kumaon Hills? 

5. What did girls learn, in her school? 

6. What did Saralabehn do, during India's struggle for freedom? 

7. What did she find happening in the Kumaon hills, after India's freedom? 

8. What did she do? 

9. What were her last words, to the people of Kumaon? 


Work in pairs, and discuss share and make sentences using these phrases 

1. inspired by 

2. in close touch with 

3. make people aware 

4. moved on 


Write a short paragraph about a time when you have had the courage to 
stand alone and iive by what you know to be true. 

Language Enrichment - READING COMPREHENSION 

Summarizing / Sequencing 
If s Who You Are, That Matters 

"Is it true, Daddy? Will we have to give up ali this?" Renu iool^ed around the 
expensively furnished drawing room. "Please say that it is just a joke!" 

"I'm sorry, Renu, but it is true," her father said. "My business has done badly 
and i have iost money. So our present iifestyie has to change." 

"Have we reaiiy become poor?" Renu whispered. 

"No. We haven't become poor. But we must be careful how we spend money," 
her mother explained to her bewiidered thirteen-year-old daughter. 

Renu's parents had toid her that they would be moving to a small flat some 
distance away from their present house. They all worked to make their small flat cosy 
and nice. Renu had to use the public bus to go to school as her father no longer owned 
a car. Renu entered her classroom to put away her bag before joining her friends 
as usual. 

"Hi, Tabu! Have you started your revision for the exams?" Renu asked her 
best friend. 

"No, there's plenty of time." Tabu turned to greet her friend, Sonia. 

Renu found it a little odd that the girls stared at her and exchanged whispers. It 
occurred to her that many girls whom she had thought of as her best friends, were 
trying to avoid her company. Perhaps they had heard about her father's 
financial problems. 


"Happy Birthday, Renu dear," her parents greeted her one morning. "We've 
planned a party for you on Sunday. You can invite all your class friends!" 

Renu was very touched that despite their troubles, her parents had arranged a 
party to make her happy. She wrote out the invitation cards and took them to school, 
proudly. After the assembly, she sought out Tabu and the others. 

"Do come to my birthday party on Sunday!" She invited them all as she handed 
them the cards. 

"I will come if possible!" Tabu's voice seemed strained. 

Renu looked around the neatly arranged sitting room with satisfaction. Her 
mother had made the sandwiches, cake and snacks herself. Renu had enjoyed 
helping her. Everything was in place. Only the guests had to arrive. 

The doorbell rang and some girls came in. Renu wasn't very friendly with them, 
especially Maya who sat next to her in class. Maya had never been a part of the 'smart 
set. But a guest is a guest and Renu chatted with them pleasantly. 

Time passed, but none of Renu's special friends came. Renu concealed the 
hurt she felt and decided to cut the cake. She was surprised to find that she enjoyed 
the evening spent with Maya and the other girls. "It's so strange that I never noticed 
them before," she thought. Why did I think they were dull? 

"Why didn't you come to my party yesterday?" Renu asked Tabu when the two 
girls met at school. "My aunt fell ill suddenly and we all went to see her," Tabu replied. 

"Hey, Tabu! Thanks for treating me to the film yesterday evening!" Sonia 
exclaimed as she came up just then. Maya, who was standing some distance away 
with Renu, heard this. Both girls showed no reaction. But Maya noted that Tabu 
looked ashamed of herself. 

"Don't worry," she said to Renu. "She is the loser." 


A sudden downpour at the end of the day took the girls by surprise as they 
streamed out of the gates. Maya and Renu covered their heads with books as they 
walked to the bus stand. A car whizzed by and Renu saw Tabu sitting in the rear seat. 
She pretended not to see them. 

"I was a show off like her," Renu had the grace to admit. 

Renu and Maya came closer together in the following weeks. Her parents were 
pleased to see how Renu had adapted herself to the changed situation and learnt true 
contentment. She was careful with her things, and never wasted food. Influenced by 
Maya, she too started to see the beauty of living simply and well. 

Renu thought how snobbish she had been - how she had earlier used the 
generous allowance given by her parents to buy the friendship of girls like Tabu and 
Sonia. But they had spurned herwhen herfatherhad lost money. 

Maya wasn't impressed either by Renu's wealth or her lack of it. She had 
taught her that what matters in life is not what you have - it is who you are. 

Summarizing /Sequencing : 

Rearrange the given sentences in logical sequence: Write the number 

1 . Tabu, Sonia and some others did not attend the birthday party. 

2. Maya was not concerned about Renu's status. 

3. Renu's father's business wasn't doing well, and the family had to face tough 

4. Renu prepared invitation cards for all herfriends for her birthday party. 

5. The family moved into a smaller apartment as they had to cut down their 

6. Renu and her mother worked hard, to make all the food for the party. 

7. Maya and some of her other classmates attended Renu's birthday party. 

8. Through Maya, Renu learnt that it is not what you have that matters, but who you 

9. Renu's parents told Renu to invite herfriends home for her birthday. 


Choose the correct answer 

1 . was Renu's best friend in the beginning. 

a) Sonia b) Tabu c) Maya 

2. Renu travelled to school by . 

a) car b) train c)bus 

3. Renu's motherwas pleased to see how her daughter to the situation 

a) adapted b) disliked c) irritated 

4. Tabu gave a wrong reason for not attending the party . 

a) aunt was sick b) went to the movies c) raining heavily 
5. Maya taught Renu to value . 

a) what she had b) her exam performance c) who she was 


Present Et to your class - Dramatization Small group 

In your group, discuss this prose passage. Write a small play using this story. 
You can adapt it to any similar situation that you have encountered in your class. 




The title of the prose passage, 'Living Amicably' is an excerpt taken from 
Dr. Kalann's autobiography. He writes objectively and dispassionately about his 
childhood. In describing his boyhood years in Rameswaram, Dr. Kalam paints a rare 
picture of communal harmony. He had met with discrimination, but because of the 
influence of broad-minded people like his parents, teachers and elders, he was able 
to understand what propels positive change. The prose piece, the poem and parallel 
passages all deal with some facts of global harmony. Exploit them to teach language, 
social values and to develop social sensitivity. As suggested, you can role play these 
incidents, adding more dialogue, and enact them in your Literary Association 

The poem, 'No IVIen are Foreign' expresses how all of us, no matter which 
country we may belong to, are one in our humanness. We all need the same elements 
such as air, water and light. We are engaged in similar pursuits. So why should we 
fight against each other and spoil the earth? Enable the students to appreciate the 
metaphor used for war and the weapons of war in the last stanza and share the poet's 
desire for global peace. 

The grammar section introduces clauses and phrases, using sentences from 
the text. You can get the pupils to identify clauses and phrases from other lessons too, 
both as pair and as group activities, to make it interesting and to maximize their oral 
use of language. 

The parallel passage and supplementary reading are for independent reading 
by the learners. For the Supplementary passage, an adaptation of Hemangini 
Ranade's beautiful story, 'Sorry, Best Friend' has been selected. The story 
inimitably explores the difference between the social and the psychological. Two 
children discover the beauty of friendship, beyond the divisions that money can 
cause. You could also ask students to assess their reading speed and note the 
progress week by week. 

Translation is a complex skill. Capturing the essence of the original text is more 
important than word for word translation. You can begin with sentences and then give 
each stanza of Bharathi's poem to each group to translate. The extension activities 
and the project work can also involve family members. Contribute as much as you can 
to bring peace, "for blessed are the peacemakers." 




From Dr. A.PJ. ABDUL KALAM'S Autobiography, 

'Wings of Fire- 

In preparation. 

As you know, India is a federal, constitutional parliamentary 
democracy and is pluralistic [multiple religions]i multilingual 
[multiple languages] and multi-ethnic [multiple cultures]. This is 
what makes us what we are. What does this mean, for each one 
of us? Agreatvisionaivglvesusaclue... 

Apart from being a notable scientist and engineer, Dr. A. P.J. Abdul Kalam 
served as the 1 1th President of India from the period 2002 to 2007. People loved and 
respected him so much during his tenure as President that he was popularly called 
the People's President. Due to his achievements in the area of science, Dr. Kalam 
had already received the Bharat Ratna before he was appointed to the highest office 
in the country. In his autobiography 'Wings of Fire' he traces the various phases of his 
life as a son, student, scientist and leader. 

I was bom into a middle class family in the island town of Rameswaram. My 
father Jainulabdeen had neither much formal education nor wealth. Despite these 
disadvantages, he possessed great Innate wisdom and a tme generosity of spirit. 
IHe had an ideal helpmate in my mother Ashiamma. 

My parents were widely regarded as an Ideal couple. I was one of their 
children. We lived in our ancestral house, which was built in the middle of the 19th 
century. It was a large concrete house, made of limestone and brick on the Mosque 
Street in Rameswaram. My austere 

father used to avoid all inessential 
connforts and luxuries, i-iowever 
I would say mine was a very secure 
childhood both materially and 
emotlonally.The famous Shiva temple, 

innate - natural, in-bom 

generosity- being liberal 

austere - one who chooses a simple lifestyle 

comforts - things that make your life easier 

luxuries -expensive things. 


which made Rameswaram so sacred to pilgrims was about a ten minute walk from 
our house. Our locality was predominantly Muslim but there were quite a few Hindu 
families too living amicably with their Muslim neighbours. 

In words/phrases 

Pick out the words that describe 
Kalam's father. 

There was a very old mosque in our locality 
where my father would take me for evening 
prayers. When my father came out of the mosque 
after the prayers, people of different religions 
would be sitting outside, waiting for him. Many of 
them offered bowls of water to my father, who 
would dip his fingertips in them and say a prayer. This water was then carried home 
for invalids. I also remember people visiting our home to offer thanks after being 
cured. The high priest of Rameswaram temple, Pakshi Lakshmana Sastry was a very 

close friend of my father. One of the most vivid memories of my 

In a word/phrase 
Did Kalam's father 
prefer a luxurious 
lifestyle? YES/NO 

early childhood is of the two men, each in his traditional attire, 
discussing spiritual matters. When I was old enough to ask 
questions, I asked my father about the relevance of prayer. My 
father told me there was nothing mysterious about prayer. 

Rather, prayer made possible a communion of the spirit between people. "When you 

pray," he said, "you transcend your 

body and become a part of the cosmos, 

which knows no division of wealth, age. 

caste or creed. 

I have throughout my life, tried 
to emulate my father in my own world 
of science and technology. 
I have endeavoured to understand the fundamental 
truths revealed to me by my father, and I feel convinced 

that there exists a divine 

sacred- holy 

pilgrims - people who travel to a holy place 

predominantly - mainly 

invalids - sick people 

attire- dress 

emulate -to try to be like 

endeavour - attempt 

In a word/phrase 

Who was his father's 
intimate friend? 

What does Kalam remember 
about them? 

power that can lift one up 
from confusion, misery, 
melancholy and failure, 
and guide one to one's 
true place. 

Is it possible to be 
friends with someone 
who eats/lives/speaks 
differently from you? 

Who is your close 

Can there be 'ranks' in a 


I had three close friends in my childhood, Ramanadha Sastry, Aravindan and 
Sivaprakasan. All these boys were from orthodox Hindu Brahmin families. As 
children none of us ever felt any difference among ourselves because of our religious 

differences and upbringing. Oneday when I was in 
the fifth standard at the Rameswaram Elementary 
School, a new teacher came to our class. 

In a word/phrase 

Who were Kalam's friends? 

I used to wear a cap which marked me as 
Muslim and I always sat in the front row, next to Ramanadha Sastry. 

He always wore a sacred thread. The new teacher could not put up with a 
Hindu priest's son sitting with a Muslim boy. In accordance with our social ranking as 
the teacher saw it, I was asked to go and sit on the back bench. I felt very sad and so 
did Ramanadha Sastry. He looked utterly downcast as I shifted to the last row, which 

left a lasting impression on me. 

in a word/phrase 

Do you think Kalam relished his 

first meal in his teacher's house? 


What surprised Kalam on his 

second visit to his teacher's 


After school, we went home and told our 
respective parents about the incident. 
Lakshmana Sastry summoned the teacher 
and in our presence told the teacher that he 
should not spread the poison of social 
inequality and communal intolerance in the 

minds of innocent children. He bluntly 
asked the teacher to either apologize or quit the school and the island. Not only did 
the teacher regret his behaviour, but the strong sense of conviction Lakshmana 
Sastry conveyed, ultimately reformed this 
young teacher. 

My science teacher Sivasubramania 
Iyer though an orthodox Brahmin with a very 
conservative wife, was something of a rebel. 
He did his best to break social barriers, 
so that people from varying back grounds 

orthodox - closely following old, 
traditional, religious beliefs 
downcast - sad, depressed 
summoned - ordered 
bluntly -directly 
apologize - say sorry for a 
wrong doing. 

conviction - strong belief 
conservative - traditional 
horrified - disgusted, outraged. 


mingle easily. One day the science 

teacher invited me to his home for a meal. 

His wife was horrified at the idea of a 

Muslim boy being invited to dine in her 

ritually pure kitchen. Sivasubramania 

Iyer was not perturbed, nor did he get 

angry with his wife, instead he served me 

with his own hands and sat down beside 

me to eat his meal. His wife watched us 

from behind the kitchen door. I wondered whether she had observed any difference 

in the way I ate rice, drank water or cleaned the floor after the meal . 

When I was leaving his house, Sivasubramania Iyer invited me to join him for 
dinner again the next weekend. Observing my hesitation, he told me not to get 
upset. "Such problems have to be confronted," he said. When I visited his house the 
next week Sivasubramania Iyer's wife took me inside her kitchen and served me food 
with her own hands! 

For my Higher Studies, I had to leave Rameswaram and study at the District 
Head Quarters at Ramanathapuram. My father took me to the mosque and recited a 
prayer from the Quran. He said. This island may have housed your body, but not your 
soul. Your soul dwells in the house of tomorrow, 
which none of us can visit, even in our dreams. May 
God bless you, my child !"Despite my homesickness, I was determined to come to 
temns with the new environment, because I knew my father had invested great hopes 
in my success. My father visualized me as a Collector in the making and I thought it my 
duty to realize my father's dream, although I desperately missed the familiarity, 
security and comforts of Rameswaram. I tried hard to control my thoughts and my 
mind, to Influence my destiny. 

The highest result ofeducatian is tolerance. 

perturbed -worried, anxious 

- Helen Keller 



1 . Where did Kalam live? 

2. How does Kalam describe his locality? 

3. What happened when Kalam's father came out of the mosque after prayers? 

4. What did the new teacher ask Kalam to do? Why? 

5. How did his friend feel? 

6. Why did it leave a lasting impression on Kalam? 

7. What did Lakshmana Sastry do? 

8. Why did Kalam have to leave Rameswaram? 

Tick the correct synonyms of the words underlined 

1. Kalam experienced communal harmony. 
a) purity b) unity c) innocence 

2. Jainulabdeen possessed great innate wisdom, 
a) famous b) inborn c) sacred 

3. Hindu families lived amicably with their Muslim neighbours 
a) emotionally b) quietly c) cordially 

4. Sivasubramania Iyer was not perturbed, 
a) flustered b) worried c) denied 

5. Sivasubramania Iyer's wife was very conservative. 
a) traditional b) ideal c) liberal 

Match the following words 

with their an 








Dr. A. P.J .Abdul Kalam's memories... ThePensieve! Fill in with words/phrasesf 

Of his focaVity 

Of his frfends 

Of Ramanadha 

Of the new 

Of Ramanathapuram, 
and his destiny.*. 

Of his father... 

Of what Lakshmana Sastry did 

Of what Sivasubramaniya Iyer did 

Of his father's words... 

Of what his wife did 


Let us think more about the lesson. 

"When you pray", he said, "you transcend your body and become a part of the 
cosmos, which knows no division of wealth, age, caste or creed." 

What did Kalam's father mean? 

"I have throughout my life, tried to emulate my father in my own world of 
science and technology." 

What does Kalam mean? 

"Such problems have to be confronted," he said, 
What did Sivasubramania Iyer mean? 


"Your soul dwells in the house of tomorrow, which none of us can visit, even 
in our dreams." 

What did Kalam's father mean? 

"I tried hard to control my thoughts and my mind, to influence my destiny. 
What does Kalam mean? 

Describe in about ten lines Dr. Kalam's unforgettable experiences at the 
Rameswaram Elementary School 


The Rainbow 

The following is a story about how the rainbow was formed. 
Once upon a time, all the colours in the world started to quarrel; each claimed 
that he or she was the best, the most important, the most useful or the favourite of all. 


Violet rose up to her full height and said, ''I am the colour of royalty and 
power. Powerful people have always chosen me to represent them. 
I am a sign of authority and control" 

Indigo spoke quietly. "I am the colour of silence. I represent thought 
and reflection." 

Blue interrupted ''Consider the sky and the sea, the basis of life. The 
sky gives space, peace and serenity and it is blue". 

Green said "I am the most important one: I am the sign of life and of 
hope. I am in the majority. The whole world has decided to go green!" 

M:: [[o\^' chuckled [made a laughing sound] and said, "I bring laughter, 
gaiety and wamith. The sun, the moon, and the stars look golden 
yellow; look at a sunflower; without me there would be no fun." 

Orange started next. 'I am the colour of health and strength. I cany 
all the most important vitamins. Think of carrots, pumpkins, oranges 
and mangoes. I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset." 

Red shouted out, ''I'm the ruler of you all. Blood is life and it is red. If s 
the colour of danger and of bravery. I am the colour of passion and of 
love. Remember the red rose." 

And so the colours went on boasting, each convinced 
that he or she was the best. Suddenly there was a startling 
Qolting] flash of brilliant white lightning. Rain started to pour 
down relentlessly [without pity]. The colours all crouched 
down in fear, drawing close to one another for comfort. 

The rain spoke; "You foolish colours, fighting among yourselves, each trying to 
dominate the rest. Do you not know that life made you all? 

"Life will stretch you across the sky in a great t>ow of colours, as a reminder that 
to live is to love, and that you can live together in peace. The rainbow is a promise that 
life is with you. It's a sign of hope for tomorrow. And as the rain ceased, the rainbow 


And so whenever life has used a good rain to wash the world, it puts the 
rainbow In the sky and when we see It, let us remember to appreciate one another. 


1. Why did each of the colours mentioned In 
the passage thinic It was Important? 

a. Violet: 

b. Indigo: 

c. Blue: 

d. Green: 

e. YnWov^r 

f. Orange: 

g. Red: 

2. Why did the rain call the colours foolish? 

3. What does the rainbow symbolize [represent]? 

A Rainbow 


Draw a rainbow In the box given above and colour It. Then write what each of 
the colours means to you. 

In brief: Look at the sentence, 

Jalnulabdeen was Kalam's father. 

This is a sentence, because It has a subject, 'Jalnulabdeen' and the 
predicate Is "was Kalam's father". It also expresses a complete thought. 

This Is a simple sentence. It can also be called a 'Main Clause'. 

In the following sentence, the predicate has more than one verb. 


Abdul Kalam lived in his ancestral house, which was old. 

In this sentence, "Abdul Kalam lived' is a complete thought - it is a sentence, or a 
main clause. 'In his ancestral house' does not have a subject or a verb, but adds to the 
meaning of the sentence - it is a phrase. 'Which was old' has a subject [the word 
which refers to house] and a verb [was], but does not stand on its own. This is called a 
Subordinate Clause. 

Let us look at Phrases and Clauses more carefully. 
Phrase - Look at the sentences; 

In the beginning, I thought he was cruel. Early in the morning, I wake up 
and sing. 

^ The highlighted words form a group by themselves. They make sense, but 

not complete sense. 
iV They can not stand by themselves, but have to be a part of a larger group 

of words which makes complete sense. 
^ They have no subject or predicate of their own. Such a group of words is 
called a phrase. 

Discuss in groups and fitf in the blanks with apt phrases from below. 
1. Despite these disadvantages 2. Observing my hesitation 
3. In our presence 4. living amicably 

5. with their Muslim neighbours 6. As children 

1 . he possessed great innate wisdom. 

2. There were a few Hindu families, 

3. none of us felt any difference among ourselves. 

4. Lakshmana Sastry told the teacher that he should not spread the 

poison of social inequality. 

5. he told me notto get upset. 

ACTIVITY: [Individual] 

Identify the phrases in the following sentences and underline them. 

1 . An old building stood beside the river. 

2. Mithun was in a happy mood. 

3. Nanmozhi was shouting at the top of her voice. 


4. We shall do it as soon as possible. 

5. On her return we asked keshwari many questions. 

What are Clauses? Look at this sentence 

When the cat is away, the mice will play. 

It contains two groups of words. 

(1 } When the cat is away and (2) the mice will play. 

Each has a subject and predicate of its own but one group of words makes complete 

sense, and the other doesn't. 

Which group of words makes complete sense? 

The mice will play makes complete sense. It is a Main Clause. When the cat is 
away has a subject [cat] and a predicate [is away], but does not make complete sense 
[the word when builds a condition]. So it is a Subordinate Clause. 


Main Clause Sub-ordinate clause 

A group of words, which has a subject and predicate of its own and makes 
complete sense is called the Main Clause. 

A group of words which has a subject and predicate of its own but makes 
incomplete sense is called a Subordinate Clause. 

When the cat is away, the mice are play. 

Sub-ordinate clause Main Clause 

Discuss with your partner and fill in the blanks with the subordinate clauses 
from below: 

which was built in the 19*^ century when I revisited his house which left a 
lasting impression on me when you pray when I was leaving 

1 . We lived in our ancestral house, 

2. He looked downcast, 

3. you become a part of the cosmos. 

4. Iyer invited me to join him for dinner again. 

5. Iyer's wife served me food with her own hands. 



Match the Phrases with suitable causes 

On seeing the snake 

where 1 was standing 

Which looked green in the light 

the ship set sail 

By working hard 

she ran away 

The tide having turned 

what he asked her 

Observing my skill 

they bought more idlis 


Identify the main and sub-ordinate clauses in the given sentences. 

1 . Shiva told Petra that he had passed. 

2. Bill Gates is a man who has amasses wealth. 

3. The milk man came when the sun rose. 

4. If it rains, the match will be cancelled. 

5. Though he is thin, he is strong. 

The following fsan imaginary dialogue. Read the dialogue with your partner! 

Kalam : Gomeon Ram, don't look so sad. 

Ram : Kalam, I just can't bear it. This new teacher should not have asked 

you to take a back seat. 
Kalam : Don't worry Ram. A back seat does not mean that I'm dull. 
Ram : No, but haven't we always sat together? I should have joined you! 
Kaiam : Perhaps the new teacher doesn't know how friendly we are here. I 

feel bad too. But we're still friends, aren't we? 
Ram : Yes, we are. But It's not all right! I feel so ashamed! I have to do 

something! Wait. I'll tell my father. He will not put up with such things. 

Now imagine you are Ram. Fill in the dialogue and role play it in the class. 

Sastry : Ram, Kalam, what happened? Why are you looking sad? 

Ram : Appa, you won't believe what the new teacher did in the class today. 

Sastry : Really! Did he stand on his head? 

Ram : No, He 


Ram & Kalam: (Give a weak smile) 

Sastry : What? Why? 

Ram : 

Sastry : This is terrible I will not allow it. Ram, run and bring him here this minute. 

Kalam : Sir, I'm not upset, please let it go. 

Sastry : No, 

Try this! 

Now you can write a dialogue between Sastry and the new teacher. 



Countries may go to war, but the people who fight Do you consider all fellow 
are human. Each has the same blood, the same hopes, human beings as your 
the same needs, and the same search for meaning in life. brothers/sisters? 

What makes us forget this? 

Why/ Why not? 

In preparation 

Our species has survived two World Wars - do you know, of the 
70 million people dead in World War II, 40 million were civilians - 
people like you and me? The average age of the soldiers who died 
was 25! Some countries, like Russia, lost nearly 15 - 20% of their 
population. Many of those who died were teenagers. Think of young 
people like you, across the worid - and send out a positive thought! 
You are the future of the human species on this planet! 

Remember, no men are strange, no countries foreign 

Beneath all uniforms, a single body breathes 

Like ours; the land our brothers walk upon 

Is earth like this, in which we all shall lie. 

They, too aware of sun and air and water, 

Are fed by peaceful harvests, by war's long winter starv'd. 

Their hands are ours, and in their lines we read 
A labour not different from our own. 
Remember they have eyes like ours that wake 
Or sleep, and strength that can be won 
By love. In every land is common life 
That all can recognize and understand. 

Let us remember, whenever, we are told 

To hate our brothers, it is ourselves 

That we shall dispossess, betray, condemn. 

Remember, we who take arms against each other. 

It is the human earth that we defile. 

Our hells of fire and dust outrage the innocence 

Of air that is everywhere our own. 

Remember, no men are foreign, and no countries strange. 

James Kirkup 


strange - unfamiliar 
beneath - underneath 
breathes - lives 
lie - be buried 
dispossess - rob 
defile - pollute 
outrage - destroy. 

James Kirkup (1918 - 2009). was an English poet, 
translator and travel writer. He won the Atlantic Award for 
Literature in 1950. During the Second World War, he was a 
'conscientious objector* - that is, he refused to fight, 
saying that he did not want to kill anyone. He instead 
worked as a farm labourer during the period of the war. 

Understanding the poem: 

What do you understand by"beneath all uniforms, a single body breathes like ours"? 

What does the poet convey, when he says that our enemies, too, are fed by the earth's 
harvests, and starved by the ravages of war? 

Carefully examine the following phrases from the poem, and write down what they 
mean to you. 

hands are ours 

eyes like ours 

strength that can be won by love 

common life that all can recognize and 

when we are told to hate others, we dispossess, betray and condemn ourselves 

[consider each word separately] 


1 . This poem is set in the context of war. So pick out words that refer to war. 

2. What is the 'uniform' referred to here? 

3. To whom does 'brother refer"? 

4. Why does the poet compare war to a long winter? 

5. What are some experiences common to all people on earth? 



Why does the poet say that when 

we hate our enemies we betray and 

condemn ourselves? 

How do we defile the earth during war-time? 


In some countries, military service is compulsory. Argue for and against | 

compulsory military service. 

olili^A) cucn'(!$ jii sanriair 

The cat that sits at home, 

iS)6ir6iDflra6ir QujbrD^u y^flOOT - ^6a)6u 

Haswhitefur, all over 

6u(!3aQair(!3 |£lfDiDn-@iJi. 

In time, she had a litter, 

Amazing! Each kitten - a different colour. 

ffiruiua) |ElpQu)n-(!3 @ili^ - a(!3(S 

Ash-grey was a little kitten 


One dark like tar 

uiruiLi (QrDGIuircig @l.i^- QoifiirflDcirLi 

Yet another had the colourof a snake. 

uirc6l6or iQpQLJiirQj @ili^ 

While a tiny one was white as milk. 

luiraju) ^(oQ- fin iD6ir(S|Dn- ? 
6r|bp Qui6Qrp>^ Off ir&McoirGiuiir ? 

Though by colour they differ 
Aren't all from the same mother? 
Do you a colour to greatness assign? 
And consider another of low design? 
We differ in colour, indeed - 

cu6nn-6nn-ifiiacir (!!6ijibp6iDiiiLiuili-ircb - ^^& 

Yet do we really differ in need? 

unrgpii-if (oAjjbpaiDiiiuSAmso 

The lessons from this litter heed! 

6r6iRn-6iiori5Ja6ir QffiLeiDaaGlcTrAcoiriii - gli5J@ 
luiFAJifa^u) 96ifrGlfD6nrA airfiorflf. 

We're alike in thought and deed. 

- marraoSI uinr^iur 



Supplementary Reader 

Adapted from the story by Hemangini Ranade 

Renu and her thirteen year old daughter Manju had just arrived in l\^umbai from 
Delhi. They were living on the tenth floor of a big apartment in a colony. The schools 
were still closed. So Manju stayed at home by herself and her mother began going to 
office. Of course Manju was not happy when her mother left her alone. But she knew 
that for a long time after papa's death her mother couldnt find any office to go to. So 
she did not argue with her mother. 

Her mother always said all sorts of things to her before leaving. Beti, don't 
open thedoorexceptforBai. And when she knocks, first find out who it is. Don*t climb 
on anything in the balcony or lean out. 

Don't tum on the gas. Be sure to have lunch on time. She would listen 
carefuliy to It all. 

But she did feel terribly lonely. She watched TV for 
a whilei or read in the balcony. Then she would look 
down to see what was happening below on the road. 
And then eating^ and then sleeping I What else was 
there to do, all alone? 

A little after her mother left, Bai would come, and 
when her work was finished the door would close 
after her too. Everything was silent next door as well. 
The people who lived there also went away all day. 

When her mother retumed in the evening, she would take Manju for a walk. 
But she'd be too tired to answer her questions. She would answer one or two and then 
stop. Manju would understand that her mother was tired and become silent. But this 
made herfeel angry inside. 


One day Bai brought her young daughter 
along. She said to her sternly, "Now sweep and 
swab the house, and not a word out of you." Bai 
began cleaning the vessels. The young girl did 
her work, silently. She was terribly thin, and not 
very clean. Manju asked her name, the young 
girl looked frightened. Then she whispered 
"Miriam". "How old are you?" asked Manju. "I am 
thirteen," said Miriam, shyly. Manju was 
shocked. The same age as she was! She looked 
so thin and small! "Do you go to school?" She shook her head. "Why not?" 

Miriam glanced at her mother. "I attended school till the sixth," she said, and fell 
silent. "1*11 be going to school soon," she added. Then Bai said, "She was a good 
student. How can she go to school, beti? She does all the houseworic. I need all the 
help I can get. Her father has left us, and I have to work more, now." But she needs to 
study!" Manju wanted to take her into her room and show her all the toys and books 
thatshehad, butthegiri refused to come. 

When Bai was ready to go home, Manju requested her to bring Miriam 
again. When her mother came back, Manju told her about Miriam. "Did you try talking 
to her?" asked her mother. 

"She refused to respond every time," said Manju in disgust. 

"Keep trying," said her mother. 

On Sunday, when Renu was home, she said something to Bai and 
after that Miriam came with her mother every day. She began to arrive in clean 
clothes. Her hair was neatly oiled and plaited. At lunch time they would eat together. 
Mother was now leaving lunch for both of them. Bai would bring Miriam In the morning 
and only pick her up in the evening after she had cleaned some of the other 
homes in the colony. Now the day flew by for Manju; in the winking of an eye, it 
seemed, the day was gone. 


The girls had so much to share! Manju and Miriam would talk to each other for 
hours! Manju told her all her secrets - about her friends and enemies in Delhi, how 
she was going to be an architect, what her father had been likei and all about her 
relatives. Miriam in tum talked to her about her life in the chawl, and of her rude 
cousin Mehrab. She also spoke of her dream of having her own embroidery unit. 
"Don't you want to study?" Manju would ask curiously. "Oh, I do," Miriam would reply. 
'It's just that Ammi works so hard!" Her eyes would fill with tears. 

At another time, Manju asked, "If you could start studying again, what would 
you like to become?" "I would become an IAS officen" Miriam said, resolutely. " I would 
do a lot of good for the people." Manju said to her mother, "I'm leaming so much from 
Miriam, ammal And it's so much fun!"" 

Three weeks passed like a dream. May 
was almost over. School was to begin in a 
week. She was going to a new school, a new 
class. Manju wondered what it would be like. 
'Will I have friends like Miriam?" she asked 
herself. As she looked back at her time with 
Miriam, she was filled with gratitude. "Miriam 
didn't need to come every day," she thought. 'May be she liked me!" Somehow, the 
thought that Miriam liked her made Manju very happy. It was difficult to say why. 
Maybe, under other circumstances, she would never have talked to Miriam at all! "And 
more important, Miriam would never have talked to me!" she realized. Miriam's trust 
in her was like a precious jewel in Manju's heart. 

"I'll neverforget these three weeks, never!" she thought. 

On the first of June, her mother did something that shocked Manju. She gave 
some money to Manju as she was leaving, and asked her to give the money to Miriam 
as her salary. Before Manju could question her, she had left. When Miriam amved, 
Manju said in an unfriendly way, "Take It, the money you eamed." But it was Bai who 
quickly grabbed the money from her hand. That day Manju did not speak to Miriam or 


play with her. She went off with her bool^s to her own corner, and when IVIiriam 
playfully tried to snatch her book away, she flew at her. 

"Leave it alone. You can't read or write, stupid!" Miriam gazed at her for a 
moment with all her eyes. Then she shrugged, and started helping her mother. 

The next day was Sunday, Manju's mother wanted to take both children to the 
beach, because Manju had to go back to school in a couple of days. 

Manju was still angry. She walked ahead of her mother and Miriam, without 
saying a word. There was a cool breeze blowing, and the waves roared in the 

Both children played separately in the water, and then settled down on the 
sand. Manju's mother decided to buy both of them some icecream. "When she was 
paying for them, Manju said rudely, "Why don't you let Miriam pay for her icecream?" 
Miriam's eyes filled with tears. She threw down her icecream and ran away. 

That evening, her mother wouldn't talk to Manju. She did not give her dinner, 
and she didn't eat either. When it was time to leave for the office, her mother came to 
her and said, "I am going to Bai's house to tell her not to bring Miriam here anymore. 
You are not her friend, you are her enemy. I am ashamed of you." 

When Manju heard her mother's tone, the tears finally came. She was howling 
now, and her mother was caressing her in her usual way. 

"What is troubling you, Manju?" asked her mother gently. "Oh. I don't know. 
Why did you give her money, arnma? I thought she was a friend! All the time, I thought 
...I thought she was the best friend I had ever had! But she was just doing a job!" 
Manju started crying again, and she wouldn't stop. Renu tried explaining to Manju that 
she had actually spoken to Bai, and given Miriam money so that she could go to 
school, but it made no difference to her. Finally Renu said, "Come, I want to take you 

They went to a cluster of huts right at the end of their lane. It was terribly smelly. 
There was garbage lying around in heaps. There was a single water-tap and a crowd 


of thirty or forty women around it. Miriam had talked to her of all this, but this. . . was 
real! The men and women in the chawl stared at them. Manju felt uncomfortable. 
*Whydo they lookat me like that?" she thought. They were now entering a tiny house. 

It was so dark Inside that they could hardly see. Then theysawa small figure at 
the stove in the smoky corner. It was Miriam, in tom, filthy clothes again. She got up 
slowly and looked at Manju. Her eyes were red. 

"What do you want?" asked Miriam, mdely. 
"Mother Isnt here." 

"Manju has come to talk to you, Miriam," 
said Renu softly. 'Give her another chance." 

"What chance?" said Miriam, turning away. 
There is nothing I want to say to her. Ever." 

Then Manju understood. She understood 
many things. About things that money cannot understand, or take away. About the 
unfaimess of the world. About love and laughter and good times. And just a little bit 
about the nature of friendship. She went to Miriam. She put out her hand and touched 
her shoulder. And though she whispered, all of them could hear her say, "Sorry, best 
FriendrAnd, wonder of wonders, Miriam smiled back! 


1 . Why did Renu and her daughter come to Mumbai? 

2. What instructions did her mother give Manju before leaving for office? 

3. How did Manju spend her time at home? 

4.WhowasBai? Whatworkdidshedo? 


5. Who was Miriam? 

6. Why was Miriam not going to school? Till which class had she studied? 

7. What did Manju share with Miriam? 

8. Which act of her mother upset Manju? 

9. What happened at the beach? 

1 0. Why had Renu given the money? 

1 1 . Why was Manju upset? 

12. What was Miriam's locality like? 

1 3. Why did people stare at Manju and Renu? 



Let's trace the friendship! Discuss and fill in. Share in Class! 

Manju's feeling 


lUliriam's feeiing 








ease and sharing 

ease and sharing 






hurt and disgust 





What Manju understood - Explain 
things that money cannot 
understand, ortai^e away 

What Miriam understood 

the unfairness of the world 

fove and laughter and good times 

a Itttle bit about the nature of 


Discuss and write. 

What did Manju feel about her friendship with IVIiriam? 

Why did she feel disappointed? 

Can you find out what Miriam feels, on tliese occasions? 

a. IVIiriam gazed at her for a moment with all her eyes. Then she shrugged, 
and started helping her mother Feeling: 

b. Miriam's eyes filled with tears. She threw down her ice-cream and ran 
away. Feeling: 

c- What chance?" said Miriam, turning away. "There is nothing I want to say to 
her. Ever" Feeling: 


Do you keep a diary? Write about someone who is your friend. Say how you 
became friends. What makes you a good friend? 



This unit aims at enhancing the students' love of her/his country by reading not 
only about a remarkable queen in the prose text but also about everyday heroes and 
heroines in the supplementary reading section. They make us feel proud of our 
country and our heritage. This also touches on the theme of women's empowerment. 
Rani of Jhansi the prose text, adapted from the inspirational narrative of Sandhya 
Rao, speaks about the dynamic role that the young Rani Lakshrnibai played during 
the Firstwarof Indian Independence. 

The exercises on vocabulary will enrich the students' active use of the 
language. They will have fun finding out the words hidden in the maze. The road map 
activity will enable the students to engage with the inspirational nature of the text. 
Alongside, the student will also learn to transfer information as a pre-writing exercise. 

Care has been taken in devising activities to help children engage themselves 
in active learning through the interactive mode. The children will be introduced to the 
transitive and intransitive verbs and active and passive constructions through simple 

In Derozio's beautiful and evocative poem To India My Native Land, the poet 
laments the vanished glory of India and wants to go back in time to recapture its 
ancient grace for the present generation. The teacher could enable the students to 
visualize the figures of speech used and to feel and share the poet's nostalgia. You 
could help the students to probe and figure out the poet's intention and reflect on what 
our own thoughts might be. 

The Supplementary Section, After the Storm, adapted from a powerful 
children's story written by Deepa Agarwal, evokes in young readers a sense of how 
their attitudes can change any situation for the better. 

There are many functional enrichment activities such as projects and creative 
writing to encourage children to think further and use the target language in a real or a 
given situation. 




Adapted from Sandhya Rao's story 

In Preparation : 

Think of 1857 and you think of the Rani of Jhansi, one of 
India's bravest women. That was the year when the indian 
soidiers openiy tunned against their masters, the British, it was 
the first organized fight back, and Indians caiied this their First 
War of independence, it was aiso known as 'Sepoy Mutiny', it 
was a revoit against the British Government. Lakshmibai too 
joined that mutiny in 1858, after she had beoomethelRaniof Jhansi. 

What is caiied the First 

War of Independence? 


When Lakshmibai was bom in Benaras, the wise 
ones said she wouid become a queen. iHer parents, 
Moropant Tambe and Bhagirathibai named her 
Manikamika after the river Ganga. iHer mother toid her 
many stories from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha and Menu, as she was 
caiied, was very happy. Unfbrtunateiy Bhagirathibai died ali of a sudden when Manu 
was oniy 4. Moropant Tambe moved to a piece caiied Bithur. There he worked for Baji 
Rao ii, who had once been the Peshwa. 'Peshwa' was the title given to the Maratha 

mier. Manu was not sad for iong. She quickiy made friends 
with the boys. Nana Sahib and Tantia Tope. Nana Sahib 
was Baji Rao's adopted son. With them, she ieamed to ride 
and shoot. She aiso went to schooi, aithough in those days 
giris were not taught to read and write. She was caiied as 
'Chhabiii'- the sweet one - by everyone, inciuding 
Baji Rao. 

Who were it/Ian u's 

Why did lier father 
nnove to Bithur? 

Because of her charm and wit, Gangadhar Rao, the king of Jhansi, married her 
after his first wife, Ramabai had died chiidiess. When Gangadhar Rao married Manu, 
she was oniy 15 and she was a chiid herself. The bride was given a new name, 
Lakshmibai, Rani of Jhansi. The peopie of Jhansi weicomed Lakshmibai into their 
hearts and she loved them too. 


Soon, the people of J hansi were thrilled to know that their 
king at last had an heir. Yes, Lakshmibai had given birth to a 
baby boy in 1851 .But this 

heir - a person with 

legal right to the 

at last - finally 

heartbroken -feel extremely sad 

joy and happiness did not 
last as the baby died after 
three months and the 
people were heartbroken. 

In those days, it was common for the rulers to adopt if they did 
not have children. So the king, Gangadhar Rao chose five year-old Anand Rao, his 
cousin's child, to be his adopted son. On the eve of the adoption, on November 19, 
1853, a colourful ceremony was held and Anand Rao was renamed Damodar Rao 
Gangadhar. The British were infomried of the adoption by the king who told them that 
his queen, Lakshmibaii would rule Jhansi until the boy grew up. Soon after he had 
made the adoption, the peril began with the death of Gangadhar Rao. The Governor 
General Lord Dalhousie announced that he was taking over Jhansi, since the British 
did not accept an adopted child as a legal heir to the throne. This was only a clever 
plan on the part of the British to annex, ortake over the land with force and cunning. 

This clever way of acquiring new territories for their Empire was called the 
Doctrine of Lapse. Thafs what they used now. If an Indian ruler died without a natural 
heir, the British simply took over his or her kingdom. The kingdom or state "lapsed" to 
the British. Lakshmibai was determined not to give up, 
and said , "I will not give up Jhansi." However all her efforts 
became futile and she wept alone in her room the whole 
night. She was only nineteen years old! She decided to 
leave the fort as ordered by the British, and went to live in a 
palace In the town with Damodar, her son. The British 
began to govem Jhansi. 

ceremony- a formal 
religious function 
peril - danger 
acquiring- gaining 
territory- region 
empire - a group of 
countries ruled by one 

determined- decided 
futile- useless 

In the palace, lakshmibai led a quiet life. She taught Damodhar to fence and 
ride, read and writer. Even then, she did not stop writing to the British for justice. 


Three years passed without any disruption. The year 1857 arrived. The British 
occupied all of India and their armies were full of Indian soldiers. Not everybody, 
including the sepoys, was happy. They were very hurt because their officers had 
asked them to grease the new cartridges to be used in 
the rifles with fat from pigs and cows in order to 
smoothen the firing of the bullets. 

India has always been a multi-cultural country. 
The Muslims did not touch pork. The Hindus did not ^ 

grease - apply oil / fat 
cartridges - tubes with 
gun powder and bullets 
rifles - long guns 
smoothen - make easy 
pork - meat of a pig 

touch beef. Though they already faced many' Who came to the Rani's aid? 
problems, this was the worst one. . On a hot summer 

day in May, sepoys of the Bengal Army in Meerut '^^^ ^ 

attacked their British officers and some officers were killed. The Sepoy mutiny had 
begun! As the news spread across the central and the northern India, thousands of 
soldiers turned against their British officers. Very soon, the mutiny spread to Jhansi. 
The British were helpless to control the mutineers. They appealed to Lakshmibai to 
advise her soldiers to return quietly to their camps. It was then that she decided to join 

the rebellion- her war for independence had begun, /^where did Lakshmibai and the^ 

- others move to? 
First of all she dug up all the piles of 

ammunition that had been hidden secretly and set \ j 

up two new factories to manufacture rifles and swords. Thousands, including women 

were trained. She had a strong and loyal amriy, headed by both men and women - 

Khuda Baksh, Moti Bai, Dost Khan and Kashi Bai. 

Her army was 15,000 strong. Lakshmibai was 

galloping from one place to another on horseback 

with her son, Damodar on the pillion, to supervise 

all the activities. She became one of the toughest 

rulers of Jhansi! 

The job was given to the General, Sir Hugh 
Rose to attack Jhansi. Rose's men reached Jhansi. Encouraged by Lakshmibai the 
two best gunners Ghulam Gaus Khan and Khuda Baksh fired furiously at the 
attackers. The people inside the fort were happy to know that Lakshmibai's childhood 


- reverters 


-collection of 


- large scale 



- moving fast 

- violently 

- very large gun 

- bombed 


- run after 


friend Tantia Tope had arrived with Peshwa Nana Sahib's army to help her. But 
Rose's army was highly disciplined in fighting. Tantia Tope was forced to push back to 
a place called Kalpi, 1 70 kms away. The English cannons blasted a huge hole in the 
fort wall through which the British army entered into the fort. 

It was a terrible fight. Even though nearly 5000 of Lakshmibai's soldiers were 
killed, the British could not catch Lakshmibai as she had escaped with Damodar to 
Kalpi. Accompanied by about 350 people, she rode for twenty four hours continuously 
until she caught up with Tantia Tope in Kalpi. Rose chased them and scored one more 
point for his side. Meanwhile Rao Sahib Baji Rao's nephew joined Tantia Tope and 
Lakshmibai. All three went to Gwalior to seek support from Scindia of Gwalior. 

Though Scindia was on the British side, his 
soldiers deserted him and supported Lakshmibai 
to fight against the British. 

She gained fame far and wide and she 
asserted, "We must prepare ourselves for another 
onslaught." However Rose was back with more men and more arms, waiting outside 
the Gwalior Fort. Once again there was a terrible battle. Lakshmibai sat on her horse, 
holding the reins between herteeth and a sword in each hand. Her eyes glittered with 
fire and her swords caught the sunlight when she fought bravely, killing one after 
another. But on the third day, she was hit by a shot from an unknown soldier. She fell at 
Kotah ki Sarai near Gwalior. She was twenty three. 

Her soldiers huddled together in shock. She whispered with her last breath, 
"Give my jewels to my soldiers and look after little Damodar." The moment Lakshmibai 
died, the Peshwa army lost heart and the Sepoy Mutiny came to an end. The history of 
India is full of stories of the brave. But Lakshmibai is probably the most famous Indian 
women to have defied the British. 


- say firmly 


- violent 




- say softly 


- refuse to obey 



What was Rani Lakshmibai named as a baby? Why? 

Who were Manu's friends in Bithur? What did she learn there? 

What was she fondly called? 

Why did Gangadhar Rao choose Manu as his queen? What name did he give her? 

Why did Gangadhar Rao adopt a son? 

What was the Doctrine of Lapse? Why did the British evolve it? 

What did the Rani of wlhansi tell the police officer? 

Why were Indian soldiers unhappy with their British officers? 

How did Rani Lakshmibai prepare for the First War of Independence? 
[include her army, her loyal generals, herfrienasj l^ imes] 

Who fought her? What happened in the War? How did she die? [4 lines] 
[include Kalpi and Gwalior] 


What did she say before she died? 


Let us know the new words better : 

A. Match the following words with their meanings given: 









1 . violent attack 

2. useiess 

3. rebel 

4. disobey 

5. weapons 

B. Choose the opposites of the words given: 

1 . charm 

2. smoothen 

3. strange 

4. defy 

5. chase 

a) ugiiness 
a) soft 
a) speciai 
a) oppose 
a) foiiow 

b) magic 
b) pleasant 
b) common 
b) accept 
b) continue 

c) beauty 
c) roughen 
c) usual 
c) consider 
c) withdraw 

C. Fun with words: 

Try to find the hidden words in this maze: 












e.g.: heir 






























































































d) elegance 
d) harsh 
d) regular 
d) test 

A few clues: 

+ rise against 


+ make easy, 

+ apply oil, fat 

+ danger 


LET US UNDERSTAND : (Tick the right answer) 

1. This story is about 

a) a kingdom b) a brave queen 

2. That she iearnt to ride, shoot, read and write along with the boys speaks of 

a) her rebeiiious nature b) her wide interests 

3. That Rani Lakshmibai said "I will not give up Jhansi" shows her 

a) patriotism b) selfishness 

4. Her preparation for the 1^ War of Independence speaks of her 

a) rudeness b) determination 

5. That she led a muiticultural armyof men and women shows her 

a) aggression b) spirit and commitment 

6. That Lakshmibai's childhood firiends supported her, means that 

a) she was loyal and good b) she requested them 

7. That she travelled 24 hours at a stretch with her child on her back, speaks of 

a) herdynamism and bravery b) herdesire to escape. 

8. Her last words reveal 

a) her generous spirit b) her weakness 


1. Discuss with your friends (In small groups) 

This is a roadmap. The sign board 
at every point gives certain incidents 
that happened in the life of the Rani of 
Jhansi. Each of these places reveals 
one aspect of her personality. Discuss 
and share your views with the class: 

end of the road 








(Small Group Activity) SHARE IN CLASS Are there women in your locality, who 
have overcome obstacles after great sacrifice? 


LET US LEARN- Transitive an din transitive Verbs: 

Read the following sentences: 

1 . Sam eats mangoes. What does Sam eat? 'mangoes' 

2. Valli kicked the ball. What did Valli kick? 'the baii' 

The words 'mangoes' and the 'bali' are the objects of the verbs 'eate' and 'kicked. 
The verbs which have objects are called Transitive Verbs'. Now, read these 

1 . The sun shines brightly. 

The sun shines... WHAT? No answer 

2. Water boils at 100X. 

Water boils... WHAT? No answer. 

The verbs 'shines' and 'boils' do not have objects. Hence they are called 
Intransitive Verbs'. 

Say whether the highlighted verbs in the following sentences are transitive or 
intransitive.(lndividuai/pafr work) 

1. Please, pass the salt - . 

2. Don't wait here - . 

3. You miisf obey elders - . 

4. Stars twinkle at night - . 


Only 'transitive verbs' have a receiver of the actions. They also have 

'passive forms'. 

Look at these sentences; 

What do these two sentences have in common? 

The porter pulied a troiley 

A troiiey was puiled by the porter. 


The above two sentences have a similar meaning. 

Each sentence begins with a subject. 

When the noun in the subject's place is the person or thing, doing the action, the verb 

is in "active" form. 

When the noun in the subject's place is the person or thing, not doing the action, the 

verb is in "passive" form. 









Not the Doer 

Active Voice Passive Voice 

Discuss in pairs and say whetiier tiie underiined verbs are in active or 
passive forms; 

1. They sing songs in the assembly. 

2. Anotice wassenf by the manager. 

3. You gave him your pen 

4. IHe Aias built a house in his native place ^^i 

5. The parcel was opened secretly. ^31 

Foxexampie: They sing songs in the assembly' tells us that ^i' 

'The subject and the doer' are the one and the same; hence it is in active voice. 

'A notice was sent by the manager' tells us that 

The 'subject' is 'a notice' but the 'doer' is 'the manager', hence it is in passive voice. 


Go titrough the text and pick out the verbs given in active or passive forms; 
For example: choose - active voice 

was called - passive voice 



Directions: Match Column A with Column B, and make sentences; 

Column A 

The National flag 
The flag song 
The campus 
The birds 
The sweets 
The function 

Column B 

is filled with gaiety 

are distributed 

is presided over by the principal 

is hoisted 

is sung 

are seen in the sky 

Note: You will learn about the conversion of Active Voice into Passive Voice and 
Passive Voice into Active Voice in higher classes. 


Collect information and pictures of your favourite leader/inspirational person from 
books and magazines; Write a paragraph or an essay, adding pictures to it and 
present it to your class . 




Henry Louis Vivian Derozio 
In preparation : 

This is the outpouring of a twenty year old poet, at a time 

when India was just awakening to the need for freedom 

from the British. 

What do you feel, about being Indian? What linlcs do you 

have with this land? ^[ikik^' 

My country! In your days of glory past 

A beauteous halo circled round your brow. 

And worshipped as a deity you were... 

Where is that glory, where that reverence now? 

Your eagle pinion is chained down at last 

And grovelling in the lowly dust are you; 

Your minstrel has no wreath to weave for you 

Save the sad story of your misery 

Well - let me dive into the depths of time, 

And bring from out of the ages that have rolled 

A few small fragments of those wrecks sublime, 

Which human eyes may never more behold: 

And let the guerdon of my labour be 

My fallen country! One kind wish from you! 

halo - A ring of light around 

holy people. 

beauteous - beautiful 

deify- image of the divine 

pinion - tip of a bird's wing 

minstrel - musician, poet 

groveling - crawling on the 


lowly - humble, not high 

wracks - damages 

wreath - flowers garlanded in 

a circler shape 

sublime - something high, 


guerdon - reward of some kind 

Note on the poet 

IHenry Louis Vivian Derozio [1809 - 1831] was partly of European descent. 

But he considered himself an Indian, and felt deeply for the freedom of this country. As 

a young teacher at Calcutta, he deeply influenced many people who took part in 

India's freedom struggle. IHe loved teaching - he wrote to his students: 

Expanding like the petals of young flowers, 

I watch the gentie opening of your minds... 



Whom is the poet addressing? 

How did the country seem to the poet in the past? 

i-iow does the poet view the country at present? 

i^*1 ^4*1 fti'1 v-^^^uil^l 

Whom does the word 'minstrei' refer to? 

Why does the poet say 'your minstrei has no wreath to weave for you'? 

What do the 'smaii finagments' signify? 

What does the poet expect from the country? 


Discuss in smail groups and share your answers in class. 

What do you thinic the theme of the poem is? 

Why does the poet feei so distressed by what is happening to his country? 

'Thy eagle pinion is chained down af /as/ -Expiain the significance of pinion [wings] 

'And worshipped as a deity you wen©' What is referred to as a 'deit/7 Why? 


Add rhyming words to the following words 

dark - most - 

thrill - dew - 


Explain with reference to the context 

'Your minstrel has no wreath to weave for you 

Save the sad story of your misery' 

'A few small fragments of those wrecks sublime, 
Which human eyes may never more behold' 

LET US WRITE - a paragraph on the poet's concern over his country 

Thinking further 

Collect information from your friends to fill up this graphic organizer. 

What would you want our India to be? 

Write a report or a paragraph on 'A Vision For Our Country' 



I India 1 





In Preparation 

What do you do, when you feel very troubled about situations around you? 
Here is what one group of children did. 

The storm raged all night. Lightning crackled and the wind howled like a 
demon. Saruli cowered under the covers and clung to her motherwhen she heard the 
thunder. A peculiar crack-crack-SNAP, followed by a tremendous crash, as though a 
giant had fallen to the ground. 

"What is that?" she asked her mother. 

"The trees," her mother replied. "The wind is blowing 
them down." 

lofty - high 
foraging - collecting 
food for cattle 
wiry - thin and strong 

"The trees!" Saruli was shocked. The wind was strong, very strong. But was it 
powerful enough to knock down those enormous pines — so straight and tall? 

The next morning she saw it for herself. Row upon row of the lofty pines lay 
stretched helplessly on the ground. Saruli was stunned. Half the jungle seemed bare. 
Most of the people from the small hill village were there, foraging for branches and 
dragging them away. But Saruli, a wiry girl of thirteen, stood there stunned. 

Gripped with fear Saruli was thinking of the barren hillside across the valley. 
How desolate it looked! A real contrast to the forest near their village, which was full of 
fresh grass and shrubs. Suppose... suppose all the trees fell down ... wouldn't the 
forest disappear? With an effort she dismissed these thoughts and began to collect 
wood. Fuel was always an important need. Saruli gathered a large bundle. On her 
way back, she passed Diwan Singh's house. The old man was seated outside. "You 
want some wood, uncle?" she asked. Without waiting for an answer she dropped part 
of her bundle in one corner of the paved courtyard. 

"So you have been to the forest, girl?" 
"Yes, uncle, lots of trees fell down last night. 


Old Diwan Singh was the headman of her village. ''It was to be 
expected," he said slowly. The trees have been totally hollowed by the 
resin-tappers." Saruli's brown eyes opened wide. ''I wondered how so 
many trees had fallen down". Diwan Singh said, "First they only made 
one cut on the trees to tap resin. Now they keep on making gashes 
till the trees are utterly drained. Even a moderately strong wind can 
below them over, they are so dry." "Can't... can't someone stop them?' 
Saruli asked, homfied. Diwan sighed. "\NY\o can stop them, girl? The 
contractors are rich, influential people. They pay a lot of money to tap the 

Saruli got up go home. As she stood up, she glanced at Diwan Singh's strange 
nursery. He was growing saplings. Not the baby pines which sprang up themselves in 
the rains, but shoots of oak and deodar- the native trees of the hills. Diwan Singh told 
Saruli, 'When I was a boy this was a forest of oak and deodar. The British Government 
cut them down and planted pines." 

But, Why?" Saruli had asked. 

resin : a substance 
got from the sap of a 

"Because pine trees can be tapped for resin and resin has many uses. But they 
forgot that oaks bring rain and trap the water. Pines dry out the land." 

It was a holiday for school. Saruli took her cow to graze In the forest. The sight 

of the fallen trees-trunks was depressing. Many of the other village children were 

there too, with their goats and cows. "Come and play hide and seekl" Jaman called. 

But Saruli shook her head. She sat on a rock, thinking and thinking. How could they 

save their forest? 

'What is the matter?" Jaman asked after a while. 

"I am scared," she replied, after a short pause. 
"Suppose another storm comes along and all the trees 
are blown down. What will we do then?" 

"The contractors pay money to the Forest 
Department to tap the trees. They are allowed to do it," 
said Jaman in a low voice. 


But Saruli was rushing to the nearest pine tree. There she found several 
gashes which had gone dry. At the end of one, there was a conical tin cup, into which 
the sticky resin fell, drop by drop. She wrenched off the tin cup and threw it away. 
"That is what we can do!" She cried triumphantly. Jaman put some clay to seal the 

The other children gathered around curiously. Saruli cried excitedly. "Come 
on, help to save our forest!" 

She raced around pulling the tin cups off the trees. And Jaman followed with 
the clay. The others joined in enthusiastically. 

A week passed. The little group managed to remove the tin containers from a 
large portion of the jungle. Then, one morning, four men entered the forest to collect 
resin. Saruli's heart thudded suddenly. The showdown had come. But she had to stay 
calm. She could hear their muttered exclamations of surprise which turned into anger 
to find the trees devoid of the resin containers. I thudded: beat loudly 

Finally, they came up to the children who were swarming up around a tree. "Do 
you know who has done this?" one of the men demanded. Saruli had seen him 
around. He was called Lai Singh. 

The children looked at each other, not knowing what to say. Then Saruli 
jumped down from the /cafe/ tree. "We did it," she said. 

"Wha-at?" the man seemed unable to understand. 

"Yes," Saruli said quietly. "We threw away the containers". 

"You brats! How dare you!" Lai Singh exploded. His companions swore and 
muttered angrily. "Now we will have to put them again," Lai Singh continued. "Don't 
you dare touch the trees now?" exploded : words came out in a loud burst 

He produced a chisel-like tool and began to scrape off the mud plaster the 
children had applied. 

"Stop!" Saruli cried, hurling herself at him. He pushed her aside roughly but 
Jaman and the others joined in too. 


"Run, Radha!" Saruli cried. ''Get 
help from the village. We have got to 
save the forest!" 

Radha ran fast. But the taller 
man caught up quickly. He was about 
to grab her. Suddenly, a jeep jerked to 
an abrupt halt. "What is going on?" a 
voice spoke from inside. 

Lai Singh sprang forward 
eagerly. Jaman followed. Then his eye fell on what was written on the number plate. 
The D.F.O. Sirl" he muttered nervously. 

The District Forest Officer jumped out of the jeep. One of the men had Radha 
by the arm was gesticulating and pointing to the trees. Radha looked temfied! 

'What is the meaning of all this?" the D.F.O. asked. 

"She is the ring leader," Lai Singh said accusingly. 

"Sin we are only trying to save our forest!" Saruli said vehemently. 

Taken aback by Saruli's impassioned outburst, the D.F.O. followed her to the 
edge of the forest. He stared at the fallen tree-trunks and frowned. 

we do?. 

"It is the resin-tapping. Sir," Saruli repeated. ''If all the trees fall down, what will 

impassioned : deeply felt 

But the D.F.O. was lost in thought "I shall have to think about it," he said finally. 
"Our job is to presen/e the forests. Tell your contractor to talk to me." 

Lai Singh's eyes almost fell out with shock, but the children clapped gleefully. 
The D.F.O. got into his jeep and drove away. 

gleefully : happily 

A month went by. The resin-tappers did not come again and the children 
continued to remove the containers. They had almost finished when the first monsoon 
showers came down. That evening when Saruli went home, Diwan Singh called out to 
her, "Girl, the rains have come. "Let's plant the deodhars." 


■^j&sk -^ ■■t'm. 

She smiled happily up at him. Just then, they 
sawafamiiiarjeep. "D.F.O. Sir!" said Diwan Singh. 

The D.F.O. got off the jeep and smiied at 
Saruii. "Keep it up/ he patted her baclc. The resin 
tappers wiii nottnoubieyou again." 

Than l< you, Sir, than l< you!" chanted a chorus 
of voices. The jeep sped down the road. A breeze 
rustied through the trees maicing them sound iilce a 
distant waterfali. Saruii sighed happily. They wouid 
continue to hear that sound. They had achieved their 
goai. They had saved the forest. 

Nothing wouid destroy their forest now. 


Discuss with your Mend and complete the sentences: (Pair work) 

1 . Saruii clung to her mother when 

2. Saruii was stunned to see 

3. Suppose. . . suppose ali the trees feil down 

4. "it was to be expected", Diwan Singh said slowiy 

5. ''Oai<s bring rain and trap water, Pines 

6. Saruii found severai gashes which 

7. The tin cups were wrenched and thrown off and 

8. 'Now, we wiii have to put them again, ''Lai Singh continued, ". 

9. Tes, Sir, see aii the trees are faiiing down. Once 

10. "What are you up to now? 'Diwan Singh aslced. "_ 

'answered Saruii. 



Using this frame, match Saruii's feeling [indicated by the numbers] with the line 

that communicates it. [Small group work] ^_^ 

that they should put an end I c I 

to this (resin tapping). 

They had 



They had saved the forest. 

^that the contractors got resin 

by making gashes on the trees. I I 

to know that the wind couid 

blow down the trees. 


her friends to help her put a 

stop to the unlawful tapping. 

and wrenched off the tin cups and slapped clay on the gashes, 
how desolate the forest would be, without the trees! 
when she saw that many trees had fallen down. 

Write a paragraph on how Saruli saved the forest. [SmafI Group Work] 


Prepare a play, enacting the incidents In the story with your friends, 




In this unit, an attennpt has been made to mal<e the students aware of the 
importance of coexisting with all species on earth, especially the colourful and sweet- 
singing birds, and the ferocious, magnificent tiger. The prose text Our Winged 
Friends is an excerpt from Zai Whitaker's biography of Dr. Salim Ali, Salim AH for 
Schools. It enlightens the students on different types of birds and their strange and 
unique behaviours, and also encourages them to take up bird watching as a hobby. 
There is a poem by the famous poet, Laurence Dunbar, given as extra reading, which 
would sensitize children to the deeper dimensions of freedom, using the metaphor of 
a caged bird. 

This unit presents a frame to maximize active learning. There are many 
language exercises like semantic mapping, which effectively facilitate students in 
their learning of the language, and can be used to motivate them. Students are given 
tips for essay writing which would enhance their writing skills. 

The second part of this unit has a poem A Tiger in tfie Zoo, by poet Leslie 
Norris, which evocatively portrays the raw feelings of a caged tiger in the zoo. 
Children learn to respect animals' rights and their freedom. The questions asked here 
help them to reflect on this issue. 

The Supplementary Unit is an evocative story from Zimbabwe, The Anteater 
and tlie Dassie written by Lakshmi Mukundan. The backdrop of this story is a 
conversation between a boy called Tendai and his grandmother. The story which 
features a race between two friends, a pangolin and a dassie, communicates how 
smartness can win over strength. 

The activities given help the child to read, to comprehend and to interact in 
small and large groups. The grammar learnt in this section is Reported speech. Rules 
regarding Reported speech are given with examples. Focus is mainly on Statements 
and Imperatives. Formal letter writing is included in this unit to enable the students to 
correspond with officials when necessary. Familiarize the students with the format as 
labelled. But please focus more on the content of letters. 

There is a suggested extension activity on debating and two projects 
have also been given. 




Excerpt of Zai Whitaker's 'Salim Ali For Schools' 

In Preparation 

Dr. Salim Ali, the Birdman of India, is one of the world's most famous 
ornithologists. He made many discx>veries about Indian 
birds, and wrote the "Book of Indian Birds", which has 
become a classic. He fought for the preservation of many 
important forests, including the BharatpurBIrd Sanctuary 
in Rajasthan, and Silent Valley in Kerala. 

or-ni-tho-lo-gists: people who study birds J3 ^Logo of^ 

also a part of a project that helps Irula adivasis of 

Read and enjoy Have you watched birds around you? People have done so 
for centuries! Birds seem to represent the spirit of freedom, because they roam the 
skies. Birds have also been hunted, used as messengers and caged. Here is a poem 
by a great Black American poet, about a caged bird. 

I know why the caged bird sings, ah me, 

When his wing is bruised and his bosom sore. 

When he beats his bars and would be free; 

It Is not a carol of joy or glee, 

But a prayer that he sends from his heart's deep core, 

But a plea, that upward to Heaven he flings - 

I know why the caged bird sings. 

Paul LaufBncB Dunbar 



: hurt; bosom : chest; bars : cage 

: sacred song flings : throws up plea : request 


Many years ago in China, the government 
decided to W\\\ sparrows. They thought spanx>ws 
destroyed crops. But when ali the span*ows were Idiled, 
there was a huge expiosion in the popuiation of insect 
pests. The Chinese had forgotten that though sparrows 
eat grain, they aiso eat insects- many of which are pests 
that are the main enemy of the farmer, in the same way, the fishermen gnash their 
teeth at crocodiies because they eat up fish especiaiiy the type we malce cunries out 

of. So, iike birds, they may do a bit of harm to gnash: to ciash the teeth in anger 
humans, but aiso a whole iotof good. 

IHave you observed anything 
unique about any bird? 

Write it down 

Crocodiles are 

more than 200 miiiion years oid, on this pianet! 
Though disiilced, crocodiies piay an important 
roie in wetiand environments. They heip Iceep 
the baiance in the compiex web of iife in 
freshwater and estuarine ecosystems. 

Birds have ioveiy caiis and songs, they don't bite and most of them are 
beautiflii to ioolcat. The songs and coiours of birds have inspired great poetry, music 
and art. But birds were not put on earth just for our enjoyment. They are one of the 
most criticai or important iinlcs in the compiex web of iife that we caii the environment. 
They are master poiiinaters who transfer poiien from piece to piece. Many seeds do 
not germ inateuniess they are first eaten and digested by birds, sotheyarewonderfiii 
seed carriers too. This way, birds heip in the growth of forests. Every bird piays a 
unique part in its habitat. Some birds iilce iiving 
near streams, some in trees and in cities. But 
many species of birds are perpiexed and aianmed 




: to sprout 

: speciai 

: animai's home 


that human beings seem to encroach [intrude] upon their habitats. 
When we greedily chop down old forest trees« for example, bole- 
nesting birds become homeless. The Malabar hombill, one of our 
most spectacular and interesting birds, nests in boles of old, tall trees 
in evergreen forests. The male horn bill 'locks' his wife and babies in 
the nest by covering the opening with mud. He leaves a small kitchen i^vaavan ] 
- doorway through which he feeds with his family insects, lizards, ^^^ 

snakes and other delicious treats. 

spectacular : very impressive 
bole : tree trunk 

This way, the chicks are safe from predators but get their dally meals and 
snacks on time. But old forest trees are becoming rare. The smugglers are cutting 
them down for their valuable wood; others are clearing forests for 
the kind of 'development' we like: crowded cities, dangerous 
highways, bigger and faster cars, more pollution. Thus we 
destroy not just birds and other wild creatures, but ourselves as 
well. It's kind of silly to be chopping down your own home, isnt it? 

What are some of 
the reasons for 
cutting the trees? 






predators: animals that kill and eat other animals 

We know so much more today about our 

birds, largely because of Dr. Salim All and his 

associates. We know about the behaviour of different 

species: we know their special calls or the song each of 

them sings. We also know the places they are likely to be 

found or their distribution. For example, the tern, which 

looks like an origami [Japanese art of folding papers so 

as to make different forms] project, is a beach and ocean 

freak, and wouldn't be found In forests. The star singer, the shama, however, sticks to 

its thick forest home. i-_ , ~ ~ \ 7 

freak : wild enthusiast 


So much is still to be discovered: both for increasing our 
knowledge as well as to help conserve certain rare species. 
Because of the criminai overuse of pesticides, some birds 
are becoming rare. Can you guess why? The chemicals in 
pesticides 'thin' the egg shell, which breaks before the baby 
is ready to hatch. Many countries have banned the use of 
certain pesticides which are dangerous to birds. In India, 
many birds which were once common in certain areas, are 
disappearing we need to find out why, and do something about it - urgently. If you are 
interested in birds, you too can help in the very important effort to study and conserve 
birds. You can do this even if you're a young student-in fact ail the better, as you can be 
more active, and cover more miles than the older bird watchers. Unlike many 
hobbies, this is not an expensive one, and can be done anywhere. You may live near 
the sea or in the mountains or near a forest or even in the middle of the city. The good 

news about birds is that they are always around! 

banned : prohibited 

if you can get a pair of binoculars, great. But a pair 
of young eyes would suffice. Keep a small 
notebook and pencil or pen to write down every 
observation maticuiousiy, starting with the date, 
time and iocation of the birds you see. And, of 
course, you need a reference book, and the best 
one is The Book of indian Birds'. Make a bird list every time you go on a bird walk. As 
you become more and more Interested try and find other bird watchers you can go out 
with and leann from. Most Indian cities and even small towns, now have a bird 
watching club. You can join one and pursue your hobby. You will soon be abie to 
identily the vagaries of different birds. If you [suffice : be enough ^ 

are interested enough, you could well be meticulously : carefully 

vagaries : variety in behaviour 
anotherSalim All. Happy Bird WatchingI ^^^^^ , ^ ^^^.^^^ 



1 . Why did the government of China decide to l^ill sparrows? 

2. What happened when they did so? 

3. Why do fishemnen get angry with crocodiles? 

4. What have birds inspired? 

i^ The 
BOOK of 


5. Why are birds important in the web of life? 

6. IHow do we icnow so much about birds today? 

7. Why would we need to know more about birds? 

8. How does the pled Horn bill feed his young? 

9. What does the writer feel that every young person can do? Write three 

LET US UNDERSTAND: [Discuss and share in snnall groups!] 

1 . Why do we need to coexist with other species on this planet? 

2. In what ways have we encroached upon the habitats of birds? 

3. Why does the author compare chopping trees to chopping down your 
own home? 


Do you know 

The Arctic Tern travels twenty to 

thirty thousand kms. annually! 

Have a debate in class 

Is there a problem if a species dies out? 

If you are a bird watcher 

Summarize what you would do if you become a bird-watcher. 


Choose appropriate antonyms of the words from the list given below and fill 
up the corresponding boxes. 



f , pleased 2. bored 

excited I I prey I I triumph 

3, predator 4. guest 5. defeat 


This passage speaks of where some birds live - their habitat, and suggests that 

we can find out more about the birds we observe. 
Tabulate species and habitats, I ike this example given below: 




Fields & scrub 







LET US DO : Semantic Mapping 

What are all the words that come to your mind when you think of the word, bird? 

Let's try putting them down like this. 

In how many ways can you 
classify these words? See below! 






Impact of man 


Species & Groups 

: beak, wings 
: migration 
: threat 
: beautiful 
: sanctuary 
: deforestation 
: nuts, insects 
: parrot 


We can classify these words because the mind moves in all directions. 
The mind also classifies words to make meaning. 

Mapping these meanings through words is called Semantic Mapping. A set 
of words related in meaning are said to belong to the same semantic field. 
Eg. : Gricl<et (a) fielder (b) bowler (c) stumps 

Write four words that belong to the same semantic field for the words given below: 

1. space (a). 

2. business (a). 

3. technology (a). 

4. occupation (a). 

5. factory (a). 





Semantic mapping is a visual strategy for vocabulary expansion. By displaying in 
categories, words related to one another, we can see the relationship our thoughts 
have, and that helps us to make meaning out of them. 

TRYTHIS: Do a Semantic Map of the word 'nature'. 

Definitions of the word NATURE 

Your concerns 




What NATURE does 

Your feelings 


Now, let's do a map summarizing the chapter. 


Birds and Us 
















Writing an Essay on a Given Topic 

Essays generally have three parts - introduction, the body (information, argument, 

narration, description) and the conclusion. 

(i) Give an interesting introduction. It should state clearly what one is going to 

(ii) Organize the matter (main theme) in 2-3 paragraphs; in such a way that one 
paragraph leads smoothly to the next. 

(iii) Give an effective conclusion. 

Here is a short essay about PROJECT TIGER. Study how it is organized into 
paragraphs, each conveying a specific issue. 

Introduction of the Essay 

The tiger is a magnificent and ferocious creature which inspires fear and awe 
in us. It is our national symbol. But our forests are devoid of the roar of tigers now. 
Once there were 40,000 tigers in India. Do you know how many tigers we have in 
our country now? Why do you think the number has decreased alarmingly in the past 
few years? 


Body of the Essay 

The tiger is a symbol of wilderness and the well- 
being of the ecosystem. By conserving and saving 
tigers, the entire ecosystem is conserved. 

Origin of Project Tiger : 

In 1947, therewereabout 15,000 tigers in India. Butdue to continuous hunting 
and various other reasons, the population of Indian tigers came down to just 1827 in 
1972. As the Indian tiger was in danger of becoming extinct, in 1973, the 
Govemmentset up the Project Tiger. 

Sanctuaries & their benefits: 

Under this, some of the major national parks including Corfoett, Kaziranga, 
Mudumalai and Bandipur came under the Government's control. A ban on killing 
tigers was also imposed and whoever violated this was subjected to severe penalties 
and Imprisonment. This saw a dramatic increase In the tiger population which stood 
at 3,642 in 2002. 

Conclusion of the Essay 

Thanks to the Project Tiger, our national animal has been saved from 
extinction. So let's pledgeto support 'Project Tiger*. 


Now attempt an essay on the 
following topic using the format that you 
have just learnt; 

"Preservation of Forests" 

Do you know? 

According to the Chinese 
calendar the year 2010 is the year of 
the Golden Tiger, which is between 


You have learnt to write personal / friendly letters in standard VII. Let us here 
leam to write a Formal Letter Fomnal letters are written for official or commercial 
purposes. Formal letters must be brief and formal in tone. The different parts of the 
letter have been labelled for you. 


study the letter to the Director of Vandalur Zoological Park asking him to take 
charge of an abandoned tiger cub. 

From ^^ 

Ms. Rumana, 
No.6, River View Colony, 
Maramalai Nagar, 
Chennai (Pin code) 


(writer's name 
and address) 

I Date 

25 February, 2011. 


Address of the 

The Director ^ 

VandalurZoological Park, 
Chennai (Pin code) 

Dear Sir, 


Body or content 
of the letter 


I am living in an area which is near a small forest. A couple of days ago, on 
my way home from school, I found a tiger cub among the bushes. Though I was 
scared, I took him home and fed him. I made a small cage with bamboo sticks 
and have kept him there safely. He is very restless. I think he is missing his mother 
and his natural home. 

I wish you would come and take charge of the tiger cub as soon as possible. 

Thanking you, 


Yours faithfully, 



Address on the Envelope : 

The Director 

Vandalur Zoological Park, 



Complete the reply by the Director of Vandalur Zoological Park. 


The Director, 28 February, 2011 

Vandalur Zoological Park, 



Ms. Rumana, 

No.1 , River View Colony, 


Dear Runnana, 

We your letter. I would like for 

your It is a good Keep it up. We assure you that 

Address on the Envelope 


Write a letter to the Commissioner of your area complaining about the in 

sanitary conditions there. 

Extension Activities 


Read this short poem about hunting. 
Hunt for knowledge 
Hunt for adventure 
But hunt not the tiger 
Or any other creature! 

Slogan on saving tigers: 

Save the tigers 

before they are 

silenced forever. 


Project: Write small poems or slogans to help save tigers. Send them to the 
PROJECT TIGER authorities. They would publish them to create awareness 
among the public. 

GRAMMAR - LET US LEARN : Direct and Indirect speech 

Direct Speech 

Baskar : Hello, Sara. What are you doing tomorrow? 

Sara : Hello, Baskar! I am going to meet my grandmother tomorrow. 

Indirect Speech 

What did Sara say? 

Sara said that she was going to see her grandmother the next day. 
We often have to inform what people say to others. In order to do this we use. 
Direct (or) Quoted speech 
(or) Indirect (or) Reported speech 

Direct speech / Quoted speech 

Saying exactly what someone has said is called Direct Speech. Here what a 

person says appears within quotation marks (" ") and should contain the exact words. 
Eg. Naveen said, 1 am very busy". 

Indirect speech / Reported speech 

When we hear a person speak and convey it to a third person, we use Indirect 
Speech or Reported Speech. 

Eg. Naveen said that he was very busy. 


In Reported Speech, the TENSE usually changes. This is because when we 
use Reported Speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because the 
person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to 
be in the past tense too. 



"1 am going to the cinema", he said. 

He said that he was going to the cinema. 


Present Tense forms of the verbs in the Direct Speech change into their 

immediate past forms in the Reported speech. 





Simple Present 

Harisaid, "1 wantto 
buy a new bicycle." 

Simple Past Tense 

Hari said that he 
wanted to buy a new 

Present Continuous 

The clerk said, "My 
Manager Is writing 

Past Continuous 

The clerk said that his 
Manager was writing 

Present Prefect 


Shama said, "1 have 

bought a cycle". 

Past Perfect Tense 
Shama said that she 
had bought.a cycle. 

Simple Past Tense 

Murali said, "Sarath 
came at night". 

Past Perfect Tense 

Murali said that Sarath 
had come at night. 


(a) If the Direct Speech states a universal truth or a habitual fact, then the 

tense does not change. 


Direct Speech 
Indirect Speech 
Direct Speech 
Indirect Speech 

He said, The earth moves round the sun." 
He said that the earth moves round the sun. 
The teacher said 'Honesty is the best policy". 
The teacher said that honesty is the best policy. 


Your example: 

(b) If the Reporting verb is in the present tense, the verb pattern remains 
unchanged in the Reported form. (Reporting verbs are words which come before the 
inverted commas) 


Direct speech 
Indirect Speech 

He says, "I am happy" 

He says that he is happy." 

Your example: 

Changes in Pronouns: 

Pronouns in the first person in the Direct Speech are changed to third person 
pronouns in the reported speech. 

Direct Speech : She said, "1 have done rny homework." 

Indirect Speech : She said that she had done her homework. 

Modal verb forms also change: 




may / can 

might / could 

shall /will 

should / would 

Direct Speech 
Indirect Speech 
Direct Speech 
Indirect Speech 

: The teacher said , "Ashok will certainly pass" 

: The teacher said that Ashok would certainly pass. 

: My brother said, "I may go to Mumbai." 

: My brother said that he might go to Mumbai. 

your examplsi 

Your examples 


Change in Time and Place words : 

Words expressing nearness in Direct Speech change into words expressing 
distance in indirect speech. 


Direct Speech : He said, "Hari may come tomorrow". 
Indirect Speech : IHe said that IHari might come the next day. 
Your example: 
















that day 


the next day 


the previous day 

last night 

the previous night 

Reporting verbs need to be changed according to the different types of 
sentences in the Direct speech. 

In statements 'said' becomes told / stated 

In commands / requests 'said', becomes commanded / ordered, 

requested / pleaded 


Direct Speech 

The Captain said, "Stand at ease." 

Indirect Speech : The Captain ordered the soldiers to stand at ease. 

Your example: 


Reporting of Statements 

When reporting a statement, the conjunction 'that' can be used. 


Direct Speech 
Indirect Speech 
Direct Speech 
Indirect Speech 

Your example: 

Omera said to the Rani, "I will talk to your sister." 
Omera told Rani that she would talk to her sister. 
Ramu said, "I shall be here this evening". 
Ramu said that he would be there that evening. 

Reporting Commands / Requests: 

When reporting commands / requests, the verb takes the form of an infinitive 

(to + verb). 


Direct Speech 
Indirect Speech 

Your example: 

"Leave this place", said the teacher to the boys. 
The teacher ordered the boys to leave that place 


Direct Speech 
Indirect Speech 
Your example: 

Mohan said to Rita "Please give me a glass of milk". 
Mohan requested Rita to give him a glass of milk. 


Change the following sentences into Indirect or Reported Speech 

1 . "We are in some danger" said Miss Mebbin. 

2. The weatherman said, "It may rain tomorrow." 

3. The supervisor said to the man "Don't proceed with the work." 


4. Vikram said, "Krishna, please lend me your book." 

5. The captain said to his men, "Stand at ease." 

6. IHe said "I am unable to come just now because I am ill". 

7. The servant said, "I have boiled the milk." 

8. Sita said, "I came to Chennai two months ago." 

9. The man asked the counter clerk, "Please give me a ticket to Bangalore." 

10. The mother said, "Balu, don't touch that live wire." 


Conduct a small imaginary interview with Dr.Salim All about what motivated 

him to study birds. Then reportthe interview in front of the class. 


Whisper a secret to your partner. The partner then tells the secret to the other 

pupils in the class, using Reported Speech - Happy Reporting! 

Do you know? 

Many organizations have been set up to protect animals. One 
such organization is PETA - People for the Ethical Treatment 
of Animals. 

Expand the abbreviation of this organization setup to protect animals. 




- Leslie Norris 

In Preparation 

Have you been to a zoo? Which animals fascinated you the most? Do you 
think the animals looked happy In their cage? 

IHe stalks in his vivid stripes 
The few steps of his cage, 
On pads of velvet quiet, 
In his quiet rage 

He should be iuricing in shadow, 
Sliding through long grass 
Near the water hole 
Where plump deer pass. 

He should be snariing around houses 
At the jungle's edge. 
Baring his white fangs, his claws. 
Terrorizing the village! 

But he's locked in a concrete cell. 
His strength behind bars, 
Stalking the length of his cage, 
Ignoring visitors. 

He hears the last voice at night. 
The patrolling cars. 
And stares with his brilliant eyes 
At the brilliant stars. 

■I A \\\. 


- stride, march 


- bright 


- anger 

- causing great 


- taking no 




- guarding 

- hiding 

- showing the 
teeth and 


- long, sharp 


- long pointed 

Leslie Norris (1921 - 2006) was a prize winning Welsh poet and short story 
writer. Here he contrasts the pathetic state of a tiger in the zoo with the grandeur and 
ferocityof a tigerin its natural habitat. 



Where does the tiger described in the 

poem live? 

Translate the following words in Tamil 

zoo - Lfl(5«a «rrL.rfle=e=rr6B)6U 





service centre - 

Where does the poet feel the tiger should be? 

Whywould the tiger 'lurk in shadow'? 

What would he do at the jungle's edge? 

Why do you think the tiger 'ignores visitors' ? 

What is the last sound that the tiger hears at night? 

LET US UNDERSTAND: Answer the following qusstions.Discuss and filL 

1 . Describe the tiger's natural habitat, as seen in the poem. 

2. Pick out the words and phrases that describe the movements and actions of the 
tiger at contrasting situations. 

3. Bring out the difference in the meaning of the words underlined in the 
following lines: 

And stares with his brilliant eyes 

At the brilliant stars. 



On pads of velvet quiet 
In his quiet rage 


4. What do you think the tiger feeis in the zoo? 

5, Where would you lil^e to see the wiid animais - in a RQannp Facts about 

naturai paric or in a zoo? Why? Tiger 

Just iilce human finger 

prints no two tigers have 
identicai maricings. 

Have a debate 

Organize a ciass debate on the topic whether zoos are necessary. What is the 

other aiternative to seeing wild animals? 


Bring outthethemeof the poem in your own words in about 100 words. 


Similes are comparisons. Complete the simiies with the names of the animal. 

As meek as a 

As strong as a.... 
As stubborn as a 
As clever as a.... 

As brave as a 
As sly as a.... 
As proud as a 

[peacock, cheetah, fox, mule, lamb, lion, ox, monkey} 


We love our freedom. Do you think we have any right to take an animal's 

freedomaway? ^^9^'^""^^^ ''^'y^:'^::^-'^!:^^^^'^ 




Adapted fromTales from Tendai's Grandmother' a collection of stories set in 

Zimbabwe about tiie animals of Africa, by Laksiimi Mukundan. 


In preparation: 

Have you ever felt sad when your efforts do not end 
up successfully? Do you sit and brood over it? IHave you 
ever pondered on how you could use your own strengths 
to be successful? Be smart like the Pangolin. Discover 
and use your own strengths! 

Tendal was helping his Grandmother to cook lunch outdoors. He was waiting 
eagerly to eat the tasty sadza [maize grain] and stew when on their small radio they 
heard the news bulletin. One news Item was about some African farmers who had 
caught a scaly ant eater In their farmlands. They travelled In a group and presented It 
to the President of Zimbabwe as a token of respect. The President then sent the 
creature to the National Park where it was safely released into its natural world again. 

Grandmother told Tendai that scaly / 
anteaters were never harmed because they were 
symbols of good luck. While they sat eating their 
lunch, she narrated to Tendai 

an amusing anteatertale. 

Ascaly anteateronce lived near the Limpopo 
river, which flows at the border between Zimbabwe 
and Its Southern neighbour, South Africa. Pangolin 
and little Dassie were friends and together explored 
the bush, and tried to find interesting ways of 
challenging each other with new games and races. 

Pangolin Is another 
name for the scaly anteater. It 
breaks the mud with its long 
claws and darts its long sticky 
tongue deep inside to feast on 
ants and termites. 

If threatened a 
pangolin would quickly roll up 
into a scaly ball and wait for 
the danger to pass away 


They had a lot of fun together. Dassie would 
take his friend to visit his colony and Pangolin admired 
the intricate burrows and network of pathways built 
between the rocks made by them. 

On each of Pangolin's visits, Dassie had 
observed that it was difficult for his heavy friend to 
climb up and down among the rocks and pathways. 
He himself was small and sleek and able to run along 
easily. One day he had a splendid idea. He decided to 
ask Pangolin to race against him down one of the 
paths. He smiled a wily smile to himself because he 
feltquite sure that he would wini 

Dassie is an 
African rat. It is also called 
a 'rock rabbit', because it 
lives and breeds among 
rocks. A noisy and 
sociable animal, the 
dassie feeds on grasses 
and plants. 

He called out to his friend, "I have a good idea for a new race. Let us climb to the 
top ofthe kopje and mn down the main path that goes straight down. The one who can 
reach level ground first will be the winner^. Pangolin cheerfully agreed since he loved 
to compete, whether he won or lost. 

Together they climbed to the very top ofthe kopje. Dassie's beady eyes shone 
eagerly as he drew a line in the clay at the beginning ofthe path. They took positions at 
the starting line, counted to three and set off, running asfast as the could. Little Dassie 
soon drew ahead because this was the most familiar of paths to him. He could also 
run faster than Pangolin who had to carry all his heavy, clattering scales along. When 
they reached level ground, Dassie was the winner by a clear distance. Pangolin came 
up puffing and panting, but happily hailed Dassie as the winner. The two friends then 
had a good laugh together over the day's 
contest. The next day, Pangolin returned to 
visit his friend and Dassie challenged him to 
the downhill race again. Pangolin agreed. 





puffing & panting 

smooth and shiny 

round-topped hill 


But this time tlie scaiy one had a special gleam in 

his eye which Dassie did not notice. After the third count, 

they started racing down the siope to the ground once 

more. Dassie ran as fast as his iegs couid carry him. 

Suddeniy he was wondering what was roiiing quicldy 

past him now? i-ie was Iseing overtaicen by a scaiy baii, 

carried swiftiy down the siope by its own weight, it reached the piain iong before he 

did, quite unhurt by the bumps aiong thf gieam - a sudden expression of emotion in ^ 

somebody's eyes. 

IHe couid hardiy beiieve his eyes. Dassie was very confused because he couid 
not reaiiy understand what had happened, i-ie reached the finishing point and then 
watched the bail unroiiing itseif. 

Pangoiin straightened himseif 
and got onto aii fours again, i-ie iaughed 
deiightediy as he carefuiiy smoothed 
his scaies bacic in piace with his iong 
ciaws. Dassie iooiced on in amazement 

The squirrei said to the mountainp If 
i cant cany forests on my bacic, Neither can 

i^lph Waido Emerson 
Each of us has unique strengths i 

and aslced, ''i-iow did you ever think of doing such a ciever and unusuai thing? The 
scaiy anteater explained," After i iost the race yesterday, i remembered my father's 
advice. I-ie always said that there is more than one way to do a thing. I^st night, I 
thought very hard and realized that even if I could not run as fast as you, maybe I could 
try curling up and rolling down faster. As you can see, the new idea worked very well 
and I am the winner today!' 


What is the news that Tendai heard? 

Why was the scaly anteater never harmed? 


Where did the anteater and the dassie live? 

What did Pangolin and Dassie do? 

Where would Pangolin and Dassie explore? 

What would Dassie show his friend? 

What had Dassie observed? 

Why did Dassie smile to himself? 

What did he tell his friend? 

Why did Pangolin agree? 

What had Pangolin thoughtabout, for the second race? 

What did Dassie notice as he ran? 

What had Pangolin's father advised him? 

What did Pangolin understand about himself? 

Animals and Us I 

Identify the animals associated with the following phrases: 

hot days of the year 

an unbelievable story 

to shed false tears 

changing colours 

[like a chameleon, cock-and-bull story, crocodile tears, dog days] 



Sharing jokes, puzzles and riddles is a good way to 
practise English. Here are a few! 

1 . A little girl asked her mother for ten aipees to give WT^ ^ ^1 
an old woman in the park. Her mother was ^C* 
touched by the child's kindness. 

What occurs once in 
a minute, twice in a 
moment and never in 
1000 years? 
Ans.: The letter 'm'. 

"There you are, my dear, but tell me, isn't the woman 
able to work anymore?" 

"Oh, yes", came the reply. "She sells sweets". 

2. How do bees get to school? By School buzz. 

3. Hunters, photographers as well as producers do this. What is it? 
All three shoot. 

Hunters shoot animals (unfortunately!) Film producers shoot films. What do 
photographers shoot? 

Work in pairs and narrate jokes, puzzles to each other. 


Have you heard about Mowgli, Bagheera and the tiger Sher Khan. You would 
find them in Rudyard Kipling's book 'The Jungle Book' Read and enjoy it. 


Form groups and make a folder. Put in it all the information that you have 
collected about tigers. Now use this information to make posters/slogans or write 
essays /articles on the conservation of tigers. 




Hope yourjourney this far with your students has been an adventure, perhaps 
some times an uphill task, but always with its own rich rewards. This lesson The 
Unforgettable Johnny focuses on learning difficulties, particularly dyslexia and how 
teachers can make a tremendous difference to students with learning difficulties. You 
can practice the dialogue, getting pupils to role play as Ishaan, Rajan and develop 
more dialogues between other characters. Also note the structure of telephonic 
conversation - how it begins, ends, how each person takes turns, asking and 
answering, the use of short forms etc. 

Reading aloud provides multiple sensory input, through the eyes, ears and 
speech organs. During silent reading there is only visual memory but during reading 
aloud there is in addition to visual memory, oral memory when we hear what we read 
and muscular memory when our speech organs move. So use prose passages, 
especially poems to enjoy their rhythm and rhyme. Not all students can speak 
spontaneously but all can look at texts and read aloud, thus gaining self-confidence 
and self esteem. So please make time for reading aloud. 

The sensitive poem. Nine Gold Medals, by David Roth should appeal to our 
sense of appreciation for the special children. The supplementary reading of Charles' 
letter Dear God, This is Charles; can be followed up by getting your class to write 
letters about their own issues. In teaching new words, the4 S's could be borne in mind 
- how the word sounds, its pronunciation and stress, its spelling, it sense and also its 
syntax-how it will occur in a sentence. 

The information transfer exercises are life skill based. In real life we often have 
to read tables, graphs and pie diagrams. Here only one sample is given. You can 
make more such activities. The writing section focuses on paragraph writing with 
emphasis on identifying topic sentences as a pre-exercise before writing them. You 
can also get students to condense the supplementary reading passages. Finally, 
after discussing excerpts from dyslexic children's letters, from Saraswati Kendra and 
Ananya [Madras Dyslexia Association], you could get the students to reflect on their 
learning styles, and also do a project on the scope of special education. 




In Preparation: 

Here are fourfamous people. 

And here are a few facts about them. 

Albert Einstein 

Albert Einstein couldn't talk till the age of 4. He couldn't write 
till the age of 9. His teachers thought that he was slow, and a 

Thomas Alva Edison 

Thomas Alva Edison, the Inventor of the electric bulb, was 
thrown out of school when he was 1 2, because people thought that 
he could'nt study I He was poor at Math, and had a difficulty with 

Agatha Christie 

Agatha Christie, the world famous writer of murder 
mysteries, was educated at home. She had dysgraphia - a 
difficulty with the written word. She dictated her novels! 

Leonardo da Vinci 

Leonardo da Vinci was a great designer and artist of the 15th 
century. It is said that he suffered from dyslexia [he wrote his notes 
from right to left] and ADD - he couldn't focus for too long on any one 


Listen to this dialogue between Ishaan and his friend Rajan. 


- Hi Ishaan, you lool^ great, 


- Hello Rajan, thanl<s, 1 feel great. 


- Good, I'm happy to hearthat. What makes you feel so great? 


- Well, its something 1 learnt about myself. 1 was reading a few 

biographies. But before 1 tell you that, can 1 ask you a riddle? 


- Ariddle? Okaygoahead. 


-What do Edison, Einstein, Agatha Christie, Da Vinci and 1 have in 



- Edison, Einstein, Da Vinci -well, all of you are males. 


- No, Agatha Christie was a woman. 


- Oh, 1 see - Maybe all are millionaires? 


- Maybe, but I'm not a millionaire. Guess again. 


- Give me a clue. 


- All right, think of what people say about me. 


- You mean, your failing tests even though you know all the answers. 



- Yes, yes- well, 1 have dyslexia. 


- Dyslexia? You mean, all these people from Edison to 

Einstein were dyslexic? Wow! Maybe inside you, there is a great man! 


- Yes! 1 know that now. 


- Great! In what subject? 


- I'm not sure yet- but 1 love photography! 


- Fantastic! Then you are also going to be famous - Listen 

everyone, my friend Ishaan is going to be a famous photographer! 

You can touch up my photo and make my nose longer, can't you? 

A little more hair on my face, and a little adjustment of my jaw.. . 


- No, I'll make you look like a dancing monkey. And hey! 1 don't know if 1 

want to be famous! 1 am happy as 1 am. 


Ms. Alice Davis from the USA was an VIII class teacher for students with 
learning difficulties. Some were dyslexic, others dysgraphic, some others had 
dyscalculia and a few more had ADD- Attention Deficit Disorder. She loved 
teaching, and the children in her class learnt happily and well. Many of her old 
students would drop by to greet her, and share some of the good things that 
were happening in their lives. 

In the beginning of one school year, a shabby new boy called Johnny joined 
her class. He was wearing dirty jeans that hadn't been washed for a long time, and an 
old shirt that did not have a few buttons. Johnny was 1 4. He had a loud, gruff voice and 
was bad-mannered. He never looked at 
anyone in the eye when he spoke to them. 
One day he proudly announced to every one 
in the class that the Physical Education 
Teacher had told him he was stinking, and 
sprayed a perfume on him. The other students 
did not like him. In fact, no one spoke to him. 
Many of them walked the other way if they saw 
him, so that they could avoid speaking to him. 

shabby - dressed untidily 
avoid - shun, stay away pon 
neglected - did not take care of ifnored 


a prefix, means not 

working normally; 

dyslexia - difficulty with 
reading and spelling. Guess the 
meaning of dysfunction, dysgraphia 

(graph means writing) dyscalculia 

Johnny had problems with reading 
and writing. He could not correctly write 
the letters of the alphabet. He could not 
differentiate between 'b' and'd', g and q and 'p' and 'b'. But he had a good mind, and 
could reason things out very well, when he wanted to. But Ms. Davis was puzzled. 
However much she tried, she was not able to interest him in learning. She decided to 
read his past school history. His mother was looking after him, and there was no 
mention of his father. His mother frequently moved from one place to another, 
because she could not work hard at any job. She was unhappy, and therefore often 
neglected Johnny 

Ms. Davis was saddened by 
what she read. She was 
determined to give him special 
care but it was not always easy, 
because Johnny was so easily 

Do you know? 

Alphabet is a plural noun. It means a collection 
of letters in any language. Other such nouns are 
furniture, luggage, news, equipment. Collective 
nouns do not take the plural. 
Researches show that 

10% of all school children in the world have 
difficulty with learning to read and write. 


One day, a month after he had joined, a badly battered and bruised Johnny 
entered the class. His left eye was swollen and his nose was bleeding. His T shirt was 
torn, and he was wiping the blood on his face with his torn sleeve, as he entered. Yet 
he didn't seem to be upset or angry. 

For some time, Ms. Davis had suspected that some boys were bullying 
Johnny because of his dirty clothes and lack of manners. She saw that two other boys 
had bruised knuckles, and guessed that they must have bullied and beaten him up. 
She lashed out against the bullies, and they admitted to having tried 'to knock some 
sense into him'. "Why doesn't he fight back?" one of them asked. "What? And make 
you feel as bad as I do?" Johnny responded. The teacher was deeply moved. Now 

she knew why she had wanted to help 
Johnny. There was something about him that 
was humane - something that was gentle 
and strong and loving, despite the things that 
he had 


- beaten up 


- discoloured skin after 

being injured 


- one who uses is strength 

to hurt weaker people 


- kind, gentle 

Think of some difficulties that 
you might have when you 
attempt to learn something. 

What has helped you to learn 

That evening, Ms. Davis took Johnny to a 
Charity shop [where second-hand clothes are 
sold cheap] and together they carefully chose 
four sets of clean used clothes, which looked 
almost new. She asked Johnny to use the 
dressing room to try one set. When he came out 
he was grinning from ear to ear. 'Don't I look 
good?" he asked his teacher. "You look great. You can wear them when you come to 
school tomorrow," replied Ms. Davis. 

The new clothes seemed to give Johnny more confidence. His manners 
improved. Whenever Ms. Davis sensed that Johnny was scared to go out of the 
classroom for fear of the bullies, she went with him. She spent extra hours after 

school, coaching him and helping him with 
his homework. They also read together. 
Reading was Johnny's passion, though he 
didn't read very well. He loved stories of any 
kind - fables, parables, short stories. 


- frightened 


- a short story with a moral 



- imaginative and unusual 

story J 


fantasies and novels. Ms. Davis read to Johnny for half an hour everyday after 
school, before he walked home. They read biographies as well. Wisely, Ms. Davis 
Included stories of people who had experienced difficulties with reading and writing, 
but had moved on to write their own books. 

One day, he told her how much he had enjoyed the Disney film, The Lion King. 
IHe also told her how much he missed not having a father to grow up with. "Do you 
know, Johnny, Walt Disney was a dyslexic?" she said. "Really, teacher?" he asked. 
Something seemed to open out in him that day. Seeing their teacher's attitude, 
gradually his classmates Included Johnny In their activities and his grades improved. 
There seemed to be hope for Johnny after all. 

One day Johnny brought a note from his mother. The note said that they were 
leaving town in two days and asked for hisT.C. Ms. Davis was heart-broken. Johnny's 
classmates, who had begun to like him, were sad. They asked Mrs. Davis if they could 
hold a farewell party for Johnny and she wondered what they would do, but the event 
was warm and cordial. Mrs. Davis bought him a new set of clothes as a ^rewell gift. 
When Johnny sawthem he was thrilled. 

The next day just before leaving town Johnny 

mshed In with his backpack full of children's books. 

"Miss. Davis, these are my gifts to this class. These 

have been the only things I have ever asked my mother 

for," he said. Thank you, teacher," he added softly. 

''I can read now." After emptying his bag, he ran to his 

impatient mother. Ms. Davis looked at the books. They 

were mostly children's 

books that he had carefully collected from the time 
he was four. He had kept them well. Ms. Davis 
cherished these books because they were the only 
good things Johnny had ever had in his life, and he 

had gifted them to her class. Some of the children had tears in their eyes, and Mrs. 

Davis realized what a beautiful thing a generous heart can be. 


- pleasant 


- excited 


- valued treasured 


- cherish 


- inspire, stimulate 


Though Johnny had left the school, she knew that a part of him would always be there 
to nurture her when she felt lonely. For truly, 

"As one lamp lights another, nor grows less, so nobleness enkindles 

Johnny too had known in his heart that for all her strict ways, Ms. Davis had 
been a wonderful teacher. Truly, she was one in a million, the only star so far, in the 
dark sky of his life. 


1 . What is dyslexia? 


What problems did Johnny have with learning? 


What was Johnny's past history? 


Why was it not easy for Ms. Davis to help Johnny? 


Who troubled Johnny? What did they do? 


Why did they trouble him? 


What did Ms. Davis do about it? 


What did she notice? 


Why did Johnny not hit them back? 


1 0. What did the clothes do for Johnny? 

11 . In what two ways did Ms. Davis help Johnny? 

12. What was the turning point in Johnny's life? 

1 3. Why did Johnny's nnother want his T.C? 

14. How did Johnny's classmates send hinn off? 

1 5. What did Johnny do before he left? 


Discuss, write and share. [Pair/Group work] 

When his classmate asks him why he doesn't fight back, Johnny says, "What? And 
make you feel as bad as I do?" What do you understand about Johnny? 

Why was Johnny thrilled by Ms. Davis' gift? 

Why did Ms. Davischerish Johnny's gift of books? 

Ms. Davis sees the beauty of a generous heart. How do we know this? 


What is the meaning of the line, 

"As one lamp lights another, nor grows less, so nobleness enkindles nobleness."? 

Write and share! [In dividual Work] 

I Write about an unforgettable person in your life. Why is she or he 

I I Write a short essay on the change in Johnny's experience. What brought 
about the change? Use the grid to help you. 

Fiji in, to understand how Johnny makes a difference to himself and to others! 

How Johnny was 

What happened to 

How he responded 

How Ms. Davis 

His appearance 

How his cfassmates 
responded to him 

What he said/did 

His behaviour 

What the bullies did 

What he said/did 

Hts scliooj work 

What puzzled 

What he said/did 

His passion 

His sessions with 
his teacher 

What he said/did - 
what changed 

Time to leave - what 
Johnny does 

What his 
dassmates do 

What he shares 
with his teacher 


A prefix, as you know, is a group of letters added to the beginning of a word to 
cliange its meaning or to form a new word. Remember the prefixes you learnt eailier. 


Try to form opposites by adding the prefixes given in the box to the 
words given below. 





II - In - un -Ir 



regular _ 


Expand the following abbreviations : 












English spelling is not always logical but there are some rules to help us. Most 
plural words are formed by adding -s to the singular word. Here are some words from 
your lesson for you to practise. 

1 . Add -s and form plural words. 

Singular Plural 







Here are some nouns words that end in s, sh, x or z which take an- es nnainly 
because you cannot pronounce them without a vowel sound between the two's' 

2. Add - es and form plural words 

Singular Plural 



box +es 


There are certain other words which look like plural but are singular. 
Example: Pants are plural, but referto a single object. 

Some objects are used in pairs - though the words 'pair of may or may not be used 
Example: jeans-(a pairof) jeans, spectacles - (a pair of) spectacles 

3, Canyouthinkofany?otherwords? 

There are certain other words, mostly names of subjects which end in 's' but 
are only singular. You cannot leave out the 's'. 
For example: it is always Mathematics, but Arithmetic does not have an 's'! 

4. Now use a dictionary and find out what these subjects are about. 
Linguistics - the study of languages 




Choose the most suitable synonym of the following words^ as used in 
the lesson. 

1 . distracted a) disturbed b) inattentive c) disappointed 

2. pitiful a) patient b) sympathetic c) pathletic. 

3. stinl< a) terrible smell b) lovely odour c) savings bank 

4. Charity: 

a) A trust formed to promote wealth. 

b) A good character 

c) An organization collecting money for a useful cause. 

d) Being very gracious and kind. 


The following is a short summary of the Hindi film "Taare Zamin Par" about 
Ishaan, a dyslexic boy and his teacher Nikumbh. All the sentences except the first 
one are jumbled. Get into groups. Read all the sentences aloud in each group, 
then discuss the right order of the sentences, and number them. The group which 
gets the right sequence first can then come to read the story in front of the class. 

Taare Zamin Par (Stars on Earth) 

1 . Ishaan was a sad student who did not know that he was dyslexic. I I 


2. With his parents' and headmaster's permission, Nikumbh helped 
Ishaan with his studies. 

3. Ishaan was even more lonely and unhappy in the new school. 

4. Ishaan's father was sorely disappointed with his poor marks and the 
negative remarks from his teachers. 

5. As every one teased him for the time he took to learn, Ishaan began 
classes, sit in the park and dream about fascinating things. 


to cut I I 

6. Nikumbh admired Ishaan's aptitude for drawing. He helped Ishaan to | I 
express himself, and organized an art exhibition for the school. L_l 

7. But when Nikumbh the new art teacher came to Ishaan's class, he I 
understood his difficulty and decided to help Ishaan. ' ' 

8. So his father admitted him in a residential school to discipline him. 

9. His parents were thrilled when Ishaan's painting was widely 


1 0. Ishaan blossomed out under Nikumbh's care and his new techniques of I I 

11 . Every one realized that disability is not inability but a different way of I I 
learning. ^"""^ 

Collating information 

Now you are going to collect information about the Primary Health Centre (P.H.C.) in 
your village or a hospital in your town or city, using the following table. 

Our Primary Health Centre 


Name of tiie doctor-in-charge 

Name of tiie nurse / mid wife 

Telephone Number 

Number of beds available 

Working hours 

Does it also have a pharmacy 

Does it have an ambulance 


What other facilities does it have? Laboratory? ^ J^ 

X-ray? Scan? "" h :i^ggi^g MSWfej| jy p/yQ 

What is done for cases needing specialist 

Now write a paragraph using the information 
above and the clues below. 

Our Prinnary Health Centre 

Our village/town/area has an excellent Primary Health Centre/clinic/hospital 


Paragraphs are made up of sentences which centre around a particular topic. 
Read the following paragraphs 

PARA 1- Firstly, dyslexia can go undetected throughout a child's academic 
years and adulthood. Then, there are several misconceptions about dyslexic 
children - that they are slow learners, emotionally disturbed, totally unfit for teaming 
and so on. This is not tme. Dyslexic children have problems only in the area of 
language - reading, writing, spelling and sometimes arithmetic - not in thinking. It is 
estimated that in India, as in the worid, about 10% of all school going children are 
dyslexic. It Is more prevalent among boys than among giris In the ratloof 4:1 . 

PARA 2- A dyslexic child is an intelligent child who fails at school. He or 

she would give all answers orally but fail to do a written exam. The child might lose 
pace when he reads, and sometimes even lines. A child might perfomi well one day 


but badly the next day. He might draw well but feel troubled because he is told that he 
has bad handwriting. He or she might have spellings that are very wrong, and 
numbers that are inverted, and yet be capable of cogently arguing a point. So 
teachers might feel that a dyslexic child is lazy. 

PARA 3 - We live in a read-write world, and therefore a child with these 
confusions causes a great deal of tension and worry. Actually, however, what life 
requires is not just the ability to read and write. Life requires the ability to think, to feel, 
to reason and to act. No two dyslexics are alike, and no two species in nature are 
totally alike. The diversity in our abilities is what makes us human. As human 
beings, we all can learn, we can be helped, and we can enjoy living. 

What is the topic about? It's about 

Many things can be written about dyslexia, its nature, its impact, the mental pain it 
can cause, and so on. 

A sentence in a paragraph which summarizes the main idea is called the 
topic sentence. 

Here is the topic sentence 

- of the first paragraph - 

Dyslexic children have problems only in the area of language. 

- of the second paragraph - 

Adyslexic child is an intelligent child who fails at school. 

- of the third paragraph 

As human beings, we all can learn, we can be helped, and we can enjoy living. 

The topic sentence tells the reader what the paragraph is about. The topic 
sentence can be the first sentence, or even the last sentence in the paragraph. 
Sometimes the same idea is repeated for our benefit in the last or the closing 
sentence in different words. 


When there is a sequence of paragraphs, it would be possible to build a 
sequence, using the topic sentences. Write the three sentences down. 

In a good paragraph all the sentences are closely connected. There should be 
no unconnected or unnecessary sentences. The writer of these paragraphs shares 
three different related ideas, one after the other. 

In each, she presents details in supportof the topic sentence. 

The first one has been done for you. 

PARA 1 - utidetected misconceptions estimated ratio 

Look at example one and fill in the key supporting points of the other two 
paragraphs. This exercise will also help you to write a precis. 

PARA 2- 


The writer uses linkers or connecting words to create a well-knit paragraph. 
Pick out the connecting words, and underline them - firstly, and, but, therefore, 
actually, however, yet. Are there more? 

Now look at the diagrammatic structure of this paragraph. 

r^ Closing sentence. J rlopic sentence j T Supporting details J 


There are many types of paragraphs, each with its own i^ind of organization. In 
a story, or in an episode, there will be a logical sequence or a sequence of time. In a 
descriptive paragraph, we use the sequence of space [what we describe] from left to 
right or top to bottom. Depending on the type of the paragraph we use linkers such as, 
once, first next, then, at last etc. 

Study the following paragraph on Edison, and pick out the topic sentence, and 

the supportive sentences. 

Thomas Alva Edison was dyslexic but he had a scientific mind. Edison was 

curious about everything. One day he saw a hen sitting over 
her eggs and asked his mother why. She told him that to hatch, 
the hen was giving the eggs warmth. He asked her how long 
the hen would sit on the eggs. IHis mother replied "Until they 
hatch." Edison thought about this and came up with an idea for 
the eggs to hatch faster. He chased the hen away and sat on 
the eggs himself. You can imagine what happened next. All 
the eggs were broken and the hen and his mother were 
furious. But this did not stop Edison from trying out new ideas. 


Pick out the topic sentence and the closing sentence 

Telephonic conversation [Pair work] 

Study the telephonic conversation between Ishaan and his mother. 

Write and enact your own conversation, with a person of your choice. 



Hello Ma! How're you? 

I'm fine, my dear. How're you? How's your new school? 

The school is O.K. but I miss you ma. I miss your hugs and bed 

time reading. 

Itoomissyousomuch. How's the food? 

Ma, I suppose it's all right but not at all like your cooking. 

How about your studies? 

My new teacher Nikumbh sir is helping me. 

Ok, I'm so proud of you. Bye-bye Ishaan. Take care. 

Bye Ma. Pleasetakecareofmycat. Iloveyoumum 



Take two similar pictures. One of you should hide picture B and the other 
picture A. Each of you should write five things that are in your picture and show it to the 
other. Ask questions to each other to find out what the differences are. 




Where are the sun glasses In your picture? 
They are on the table belowthe poster. 
Fine, Where's the television in your picture? 
Strange I The television Is on the floor. 
Where is the chair in your picture? 
The chair is near the television I 


Picture A: 
tablCj book, 


Picture B: 

television, door, 

floor, window, chair 

Use as many prepositions as possible! 

Now you continue with your partner. Just to make this game learning oriented, 
you can write down the sentences with the preposition in your note book. 

Example: A. The sunglasses are on the TV. B. The sunglasses are on the table. 
1. . 

2. , 

3. . 





What is winning? Read this poem to find out! 
In preparation: 

The Special Olympics are an international 
competition held every two years for people who 
have inteliectual difFiculties. Find out in how many 
ways the word 'special' in this poem can be 

The athietes had come from all over the country 
Torunforthegoidpforthesiiverand bronze 
ItAany weeks and months of training 
Aii coming down to these games 

The biocl(s were ali lined up for those who would use them 
The hundred-yard dash was the race to be run 
There were nine resoived athletes in back of the starting line 
Poised for the sound of the gun 

The signai was given, the pistoi exploded 

And so did the runners aii charging ahead 

But the smallest among themi he stumbled and staggered 

And feli to the asphait instead 

The eight other runners pulled up on their heeis 

The ones who had trained for so iong to compete 

One by one they all turned around and went back to heip him 

And brought the young boy to his feet 



Then all the nine runners joined hands and continued 
The hundred-yard dash now reduced to a walk 
And a banner above that said "Special Olympics" 
Could not have been more on the mark 

That's how the race ended, with nine gold medals 
They came to the finish line holding hands still 
And a standing ovation and nine beaming faces 
Said more than these words ever will. 

David Roth 

2. Where does the described scene take place? 

3. Who do you think were the competitors? How 
do you know? Which is the event mentioned? 


David Roth is a musician, song writer, playwright and a singer. 


1. When does some one get gold, silver and 
bronze medals? 


- determine. 



- slip, losing 

footing, hit 



- sway, unsteady 



- round of 



- smiling 


- cement used to : 

cover a road 

4. How many competitors were there for the event? 

5. What happened when the gun was fired? 


6. Did all hope to win? How do you know? Why did the eight runners pull upon 
the heels? 

7. In how nnany ways was this Olympic special? Explain. 

8. Who gave the standing ovation? Why? 

9. What would you have done if you were one of the eight runners? 

i) Pick out the words that rhyme. Can you add one more rhyming word? 
Example-run, gun, sun.... 

ii) In the following scatter gram, words from the poem related to games are 
scattered. Try to find them, by drawing circles around them. You can go in 
any direction. There are at least 20 words scattered around. 












































D ' 











































R ! 










Read the following letter by Charles. 

Try to guess the meaning of new words - then check 
with a dictionary. 

Dear God I 

This is Charles. I turned twelve the other day. If you noticed, I am typing 
this letter. Sometimes it's hard for me to write, you know. It's this thing called 
dysgraphia. They say that I also have Attention Deficit Disorder — oftentimes learning 
disabilities accompany A.D.D. My IQ was tested at 140 but if you graded my cursive, 
you'd feel that I don't have a mind . 

I never could hold a pencil the right way. I never could write in the lines. Every 
time I would try, but my hand would cramp up and the letters would come out sloppy, 
the lines would be too dark, and the marker would get all over my hands. Nobody 
wanted to switch papers with me to grade them, because they could nt read them. 
Keith could, but he moved away. 

My brain doesn't sense what my hand is doing. I can feel the pencil. But the 
message doesnt get home right. I have to grip the pencil tighter so that my brain 
knows that I have it in my hand. 

It's much easier for me to explain things by talking than it is to write. I'm really 
good at dictating but my teachers don't always let me. If I am asked to write an essay 
on my holiday trip, \Vs like a punishment. But if I can dictate It, or just get up and talk 
about it, I can describe the trip so well! 

If I got graded on art, I'd fail for sure. There are so many things that I can picture 
In my mind, but my hands just don't draw those pictures the way I see them. It's okay. 
I'm not complaining. I'm really doing fine. You see, you gave me a wonderful mind and 
a great sense of humour. I'm great at figuring things out, and I love to debate. We 
have some great discussions in class, and thafs where I really shine. 


I want to be a lawyer when I grow up, a trial lawyer in fact. I know I'd be good at 
that. I would be responsible for researching the crime, examining the evidence and 
truthfully presenting the case. 

My parents want to help me, so they bought me a laptop to take to school. My 

teacher Is the best this year! I am allowed to do a lot of my work on the computer. We 

have to do a project every Friday, and guess what? She lets me use my computer for 

the artworki For the first time, 1*11 be able to show everyone 

some of the things I have in my mind. 

God, this Is a thank-you letter, just to let you know I'm 

doing fine. Life's hard sometimes, but you know what? I accept 

the challenge. I have the faith to see myself through anything. 

Thanks for making me. Thanks for loving me unconditionally. 

Thanks for everything. 

Yours lovingly, 


1 . What learning difFiculties does Charies experience? 

2. Why does he say that God would think he didn't have a mind? 

3. How does dysgraphia affect Charies writing? 

4 . What is he good at? What does he find difficult to do? 

5. Whatdoeshewanttobe?Why? 

6 . Why does he say his teacher is the best? 


7. How does the computer help Charles? 

8. What do you like most about Charles? 


You learnt about prefixes. The suffix is also a syllable added to the end of a 
word to form a new word . 

er- ly, -ness, -ion, -less are some suffixes. 

Here is a table of some common suffixes and their meaning with examples. 




Your exampio 


a person 

teacher, player, 


full of 

useful, wonderful, 


subject of study 

zoology, biology 



endless, tasteless. 


makes an adverb from an 

joyfully, happily 

There are many more suffixes, Find out words with prefixes, suffixes or both. 
Examples: dis + able + ity- disability; un + condition + al + ly 


How much power do you use? 

Now - a - days we use more and more electrical appliances which consume 
energy. This energy is measured in watts. 

Study the following table and answer the questions given below it. 

















Light bulb 



Microwave oven 









Vacuum cleaner 



Washing machine 


1 . Which appliance uses maximum energy? 

2. Which of the above uses the least energy? 

3. Of the above, which appliances are used in your home? 

4. Saving energy is the need of the hour. After studying this table, the use of which 
appliance will you give up? 

5. How much energy does the iron, which we wrongly call iron box use? Instead 
of the iron what can you use? 


All over the world today, people are realizing the value of diversity. In 
education, it has become important to be universal in our approach to learning. The 
government has set up many centres that can help all children to receive the 
opportunities they deserve. In Chennai, there are schools that deal sensitively with 
dyslexia. One of them is Saraswati Kendra, run by the CP Arts Centre, Chennai. 
Another is Ananya, a school run by the Madras Dyslexia Association. Both schools 
help children to study with other children in a 'mainstream' school. 


Children from both schools have passed out and gone to Colleges and Universities to 
become productive citizens. 

Shall we see what children in these schools feel about learning, and what they 
dream of? 

I dream of travel and wildlife photography. - Akshay 

Its fun to study when you can study your way I - Michael 

When people treat you normally, you can do anythingi - Arvind 

I feel lucky to be in this school. I now know 

how to help another person when they haveastruggfe. - Arjurt 

Thanks to my teachers, I now know what I can dof - Renuka 

I want to catch snakes and frogs, go on a trek in Ladakh, cycle long 
distances, get my hands dirty in wet mud after rain.... Lakshmi 

Let all schools be special schoolsl ! I - Arun 

PROJECT : What is "Special Education"? Collect information on different kinds of 
special education. How do you learn? What helps you to learn better. 




The Prose Unit, 'What Is Your Address? tries to kindle in our students a sense 
of awe and wonder at our universe, particularly our earth, and the magnitude of its 
evolution to the present stage. Our students need to be trained to read different types 
of texts. So, this text is from the genre of popular science. To know the environmental 
concerns and to transform our earth, children need to be exposed to popular science 
writing. They need to know how to read and retrieve essential facts from the text, 
which will have transfer value in reading their science or social studies texts. 

The poem 'Footprints' is thought provoking, contrasting the paths of people 
with the ways of other living creatures. It challenges us humans to wonder why while 
the ways of other creatures connect to form a web of life the lines drawn by people 
keep others out and seem so dark. 

The word games are interesting while reinforcing spelling and syllable 
structure. Please remember to check the pronunciation and meaning of unfamiliar 
words like Andromeda and aborigines and even mispronounced common words like 
restaurant, explosion and swamps. 

The grammar item Prepositions though simple, is essential, as prepositions 
can make a big difference in meaning. So, enable the students to observe and fill in 
the graphics before using the right preposition. 

The Supplementary Reading text. The Sunbeam' is an excerpt from Dr. 
Neeraja Raghavan's beautiful book for children, 'Curiouser and Curiouser' and 
records a conversation between a butterfly and a sunbeam. There is also an 
interesting Australian Aborigine Creation Myth, given as extra reading. Both reinforce 
the theme of the wonder inherent in all creatures - even in dust particles. This section 
also presents some of the creation myths prevalent in other cultures and provides 
activities to functionally extend their practice in using science texts. 



In Preparation: 

How would you write your address? We know our 
names, our parents' names, the road, district and state we 
live in, Vf\e country we beiong to. Today, we wouid iike to think 
that we are giobai citizens. But what is our address in the _? 

Let us iookat the address of this beautifui planet we live in. . . 

Have you ever sat quietly on a clear night and looked up at the sky? How many 
stars there are! At the beginning of time, scientists say, the universe was bom when 
space was filled with an enormous explosion of energy. Today's universe contains 
countless galaxies, each containing billions of stars. The sun is a medium-sized star 
in one such galaxy, and we are a small green-blue planet, revolving around it. The 
universe has continued to expand now for over twelve billion yearsl 

Isn't it wonderful to be part of this grand 
creation, with its mountains and valleys, rivers, lakes \ \ \\\ 
and oceans? It is out of this cosmic soup that life ^ ^ N ^ 
evolved, as a single cell. Some myths call this the 
birth of life in the waters. Soon the rivers, lakes, and 
oceans of the world were swanming with a rich 
variety of life. And behold, it was good! It would be impossible to give a reason for the 
emergence of land on this planet. Earth acquires its name firom the soil that gives us 
food and sustains the cycle of life. This happened over feur hundred million years ago, 
when the first plants appeared that could survive entirely on the land. Once they had 
taken their first step, theyspread across the empty continents. 



Forests had come to the earth! Over fifty to seventy million years later, 

plants were followed onto the land by creatures with hard protective 

shells. As they crawled onto the land they evolved into ants, beetles, 

spiders, and other insects. Soon, some had evolved wings and were able to fly. Fish 

living in shallow water swamps and wetlands needed to propel themselves through 

the mud and vegetation. These creatures evolved 

into reptiles. 


: collection of 




Milky Way 

: our galaxy 


: sudden burst 


: flooded with 


: took care of 

Then, another fifty million years later, a new family of 
reptiles appeared with legs that were positioned 
beneath the body to give better support for walking 
on the land. These new animals, ancestors of mammals, rose to dominate a 
landscape rich with plant and insect life. The mammals were then threatened by a 
new kind of reptile that swept the planet - the dinosaur! This happened about 240 
million years ago. But this aggressive species became extinct! IHowdld this happen?lt 
is said that a massive rock slammed into the earth with devastating impact. The 
explosion was so powerful that it bumt up everything within a thousand mile radius. 
The only dinosaurs to survive were those that were able to fly. Mammals now rapidly 
evolved into a wide variety of shapes and sizes, safely, due to the extinction of the 
dinosaurs. Some tree dwelling mammals evolved fingers and thumbs for grasping 
onto branches. / 

Around 7 million years ago, some of these ape-like 
creatures moved away from the forests and began living 
on the grass covered plains. They began walking upright. 
These animals were the early ancestors of humans. 
Around one million years ago, they learned how to keep 
fires burning and began cooking their meals. They spread 
across Africa, Europe, and Asia in waves of migration that 
continued for hundreds of thousands of years. 

Every day the 
earth is showered by 
irocks from outer space.. 
Approximately once 
every few thousand 
years, the earth is struck 
hard enough to destroy 
an area the size of a 
usmall city! . 


As speech gradually Improved, human consciousness was slowly awakening. 
People used their Imagination to help them understand their place In the world. They 
sensed powerful forces at work around them in the mountains, forests, rivers, seas, 
and in the sky - both kind and generous, and unpredictable and destructive. People 
learned common values and gained a common understanding of the world through 
their shared mythology. 

Creation myths developed in oral traditions. In the 
society In which It was told, it was usually regarded as 
conveying profound truths. 

This cosmic energy that made the earth with Its high snow-capped mountains, 
beautiful deep valleys, thick and dense forests with wild and timid animals, small 
chirpy birds and big vultures, the vast frozen seas with Innumerable fishes, lovely 
green pastures and tall trees - remains a wonder and mystery. 

What now? 


Man has made the earth unllvable by denuding forests^ killing 
animals and birds, and polluting air and water, resulting In climatic 
changes and monsoon failures. We have made our lives cosy and comfortable, 
watching cricket matches and serials on the TV, using electrical gadgets, travelling In 
speedy vehicles and flying to far off places, but we send enonmous amounts of plastic 
waste to landfills. We extensively use oils, 

coal and gas to meet our 

energy needs. These fuels 

emit cari[)on dioxide which has 

been accumulating In the 
atmosphere. It acts like a blanket around the 
planet. This Is why the temperature around the 
worid Is Increasing. It Is called global warming. 


-when an animal 

or plant no longer 



- removing 


- forced to leave 

their place 


- completely under 



- rubbish. 


- to separate 


- stop doing It. 


An increase in giobal temperature causes sea-levels to rise, 
dispiacing thousands of peopie. There may be floods and famine, 
iowered agricuitural yieids and destruction of more species. 400 
miliion peopie in our country depend directiy on natural resources for 
their food, sheiter and iiveiihood. What wiii they do? The gaiaxies wiil 
continue to exist. But wiii human beings go the way of the dinosaurs? 

What should we do? 

A carbon foot-print is a term used for emission of carbon-dioxide by an 

Assess your carbon footprlnti 
How do you get to schooi? 

What means of transport does your famiiy use?. 

Do you turn off the iights when you ieave a room? 

Do you segregate your waste at home? 

Do you have a compost pit at home? 

Do you recycie anything? 

Do you carry a bag to do your shopping? 

How much junic food do you consume in a day? 

Sofldrinic/ paciced chips/ other 
How do you get your water? 





DVD /Music 





W^ter Heater 



How much garbage does your famiiy malce in a day? 

Do you have the gadgets iisted on the right? How many do you have? How iong do 
you use them per day? 

These questions don't measure the footprint but hopefuliy give you an idea of 
what you usei Here are a few suggestions i 

1 . Walking and cycling: \Na\k or ride your bicycie wherever you go and whenever 
you can. Waiking and cyciing reduce poiiution and gas emission, and aiso save petroi 
and money In addition to keeping us physicaiiy fit. So use motor vehicies sparingly. 


An Alarm: 

Call phone radiation may be 
one reason why the house sparrow Is 
disappearing and many bee colonies 
have collapsed I Tailcing on the cell 
phone can harm your ears as well! 

2. Keeping the environment clean: 

Segregate bio-degradabie and non- 
bio-degradable waste. Whenever possible, 
use kitchen waste to generate compost. 
Refrain from dumping garbage, plastic into 
drains, rivers and lakes. 

3. Switching overto other kinds of energies: 

Why do we pay for something that nature gives us free? We could switch over 
to solar energy and wind power They are renewable and non-pollutant sources of 

If global temperature were 
to rise by a mere TO, parts 
of Mumbai and Chennai 
will be submerged by the 
rising sea. 

a) Solar energy: One kilo watt home solar system 
will approximately generate 1600 kilowatt hours per year 
in a sunny climate and prevent 300 lbs of carbon dioxide, being released into the 

b) Wind energy: One of the greatest advantages of wind energy is that it is ample, 
renewable, widely distributed, cheap and devoid of toxic gas emissions. The 
wind will exist as long as the sun exists. 

4. Planting trees: Plant and care for a tree! 

How are galaxies fonmed? 


What makes the earth look beautiful? 


How were forests created on earth? 

Why did dinosaurs go extinct? 

How did tree-dwelling mammals evolve into early human beings? 

How did early human beings see nature? 

What do myths teach us? 

What have human beings done to the earth? 

Why is the temperature around the world increasing? Define global warming. 

What are the devastating effectsof global warming on our earth? 

What is a carbon footprint? 

What can you do to preserve this beautiful earth? 


DISCUSS &F1LL! lnanutshell....Fill in words and phrases 

420 m years 

350 nn years 

300 m years 

240 m years 

65 m years 

7 m years 

1 m years 



Fill up the blanks with suitable words from the passage : 

1. Human beings have made life 

2. Cycling is good because 

3. IVIost people depend on natural resources for 

4. Waste can be divided into and 

5. The alternatives to electric power are and 



wind energy 




gas emission 


petrol vehicles 



don't cut down 

freely available 




Antonyms : 








Read the following sentences and answer the questions that follow them 
(Refer to the prose passage to find answers). 

1 . "These fuels emit carbon dioxide" 

a) What are the fuels which emit carbon dioxide? 

b) How can we minimize the use of fuels? 


c) What alternate sources of energy could we switch to? Why? 

2. "Most of the people live in coastal areas." 

a) How nnany people will be affected by the impact of sea-rising,? 

b) Why would so many people be affected by it? 

3. "Plant and care for a tree!" 

a) Why do trees play such an important role in our lives? 

b) Why is it important to plant trees and care for them, today? 


Find out the meaning of the following 'serve' words from a dictionary 

1. preserve - 2. conserve - 

3. reserve - 4. observe - 


Read the following passage and answer the following questions: 

There are many factors that affect our carbon footprint. One is the transportation 
that we use. There is a great deal of nature that is converted into road area as a result 
of the increase in our travel, and the kinds of vehicles we use. A lot of energy, land 
and water are required to grow our food, and many vehicles are used to transport the 
food to our plates. Most of us use LPG gas, a fossil fuel, to cook our food. So, the type 
of food that we eat can also affect our carbon footprint. A lot of waste is generated by 
the packaging material used to wrap what we buy, whether it is a food 
item or a gadget! 


The kind of energy that we use to cool our home, the amount of water our 
lifestyle requires, and the waste we produce, are some areas that we can examine, 
in order to become eco friendly. 

There are many alternatives and choices that we have, to 
make our lives eco-friendly. Some of them are very simple, but 
require a great deal of care. For example, switch off the lights when 
you leave a room I Close a tap properly I 


1 . List five things that you can do, to be eco friendly. 

2. What makes it difficult for us to change our lifestyles? 

3. Plan an electrlclty/water/waste audit. Find out how much water is used / 
electricity is consumed/waste is produced in a day/week by your school/home. Give 
suggestions to make things more eco friendly. 

Share your answere with the classl 


The word 'Preposition' means that which is placed before. It is used to show 

the relationship of a noun or pronoun to some other word in the sentence. 
Read these sentences 

1 . The ball is under the table. 

2. The ball is on the table. 

3. The ball is in the box. 

4. The ball is near the box. 

5. The dog is behind the girl 

6. The house stands between two trees. 










How are prepositions used? 

The words 'under', 'on', 'in', 'near', 'behind', 'between' etc; show the relation of 

one thing to another, in space. 

at - a place can be seen as a point in space. Examine the following sentences 
Write your own examples! 
A nnan is standing at the bus stop. 

A stranger is standing at the door. 

There is a house sparrow at the window. 
Write you name at the top of the page._ 
Sign at the end of the page. 

There is a car at the end of the street. 

Here are a few more prepositions that fell us where one object is, in 

relation to another. 
Write your examples, too! 
The river is below the bus. 

There are clouds above the bus.. 
The road is under the bus. 

A man is standing by the side of the bus. 

The road stretches in front of and behind the bus. 

Different aspects of the usage of prepositions can be pictured as follows: 

Here is another thing for you to try! The same subject and object - namely, the train 

and the tunnel, are connected by a range of prepositions, and each gives us a 
different relation that they have to each other. 


You may try to form your own sentences in the space provided, using man and 
subway instead of train and tunnei. 

The train is going towards the tunnel. 

The train is going into the tunnel. 

The train is going through the tunnel. 

The train is going along the tunnei. 

The train is going away from the tunnel. 

The train is going out of the tunnel. 

Fiii in the bianlcs with correct prepositions: 

1. Where is the bali ? The ball is the table, [on.injnto] 

2. Where is the cat? The cat is the table, [above, in, under] 

3. Where is the pen? The pen is the pencil, [between Jn, beside] 

Fill In the bianlcs, choosing the correct prepositions given In the box 

between, under, in, below, on, among 

1. The girl is standing twopiiiars. 

2. There is a pencil thetable. 

3. She placed the dishes thetable 

4. Waterflowed the bridge. 

5. Thecatsat thetable. 


In retation to a line - one dimension 

Your example 

o » 

on the road 

beside the road 

across the road 

along the river 
o > 

In relation to a surface » 2 dEmensions 

upon the platform 



off the platform 


beyond the field 


through the room 


In relation to a space - 3 dimensions [length, breath, height] 

inside the house 


outside the house 


♦ o 


climb up the mountain 

climb down the mountain 

jump over X 

crawl under X 

over the river 

...—.-.-...— ...-.-.— ...-...— .-.-.......— .-.-.... 

underneath the river 


In relation to a line - one dimension 

Your example 

At the front, at IKe back, at the side, or facing 

X in front of/before Y 
X . Y 

X behind Y 

. Y , X 

X beside Y 
^ V 

X opposite to Y 
Y [ . . ] X 

• A 


* 1 

On more than one side 

around the park 

belt round my waist 



n X and Y 



among friends 

X walks with Y 


Y walks with X 



1 . BEFORE = earlier than; AFTER = later than, as in- 
come before or after 8 o'clock. 
Your example: 

2. AT is used with a point of time, as in — 

I'll meet you at 8 o' clock, [at sunrise, at dinner, at Deepavali]? 
Your example: 

3. BY = not later than, as in — 

We must leave by 4'o'clock, or we shall not arrive in time. 
Your example: 

4. DURING = While that period of time or event is in progress, as in — 

Nobody was allowed to go out during the examination. 
Your example: 

5. FOR denotes time during which an action or state continues, as in — 

I walk (for) two hours everyday and then I take rest (for) an hour. 
Your example: 

6. FROM marks the beginning of a period, as in — 

The bank will be open from 10 o'clock (onwards) 
Your example: 

7. IN is used with a specific period of time, as ' in the morning'[in the evening, in 
January, in (the) summer]. 

NOTE: We met in June last and shall meet again in January next. 
Or, we may say: We met last June and shall meet next January. 
Your example: 


8. IN marks the end of a period of time, as in — 

I'll call again in five minutes. (I.e. after an interval of 5 minutes) 
Your example: 

9. ON is used before days of the week, and dates, as in — 

We will meet again (on) Friday (next). 

NOTE: No preposition is used in: We met last Friday and will meet again 

next Friday. 
Your example: 

10. AROUND = about, as in— 

I will see you around 5 o'clock. 
Your example: 

1 1 . THROUGH (OUT) = from the beginning to the end of a period, as in- 

The play went on throughout [through, all through] the night. 
Your example: 

12. UNTIL (always replaceable by till ) marks the end of a period, as in — 
We waited [did not leave] until 1 2 o' clock. 

Your example: 

1 3. WITHIN suggests that the performance of an action is limited to a certain 
period, as in — 

We must be back within [in] fifteen minutes. 
Your example: 





In preparation: Why does man make pemnanent pathways? 

All birds find pathways in the sky, 

All insects, on the tree, 
The stars in boundless space do fly 

And fishes share the sea. 

The trees and winds themselves create 
Their patterns in the mind 

The web of life their ways relate 

To those that seek to find! 

On the tree and on the ground, 
In the sea and in the air 

Across the earth, so vast and round. 

There are footprints, everywhere! 

These mazy paths cannot be seen 
But wind themselves about 

The line each draws has never been 
To keep the others out. 

But great men said 'Let each man leave 
A road that's straight and narrow 

A path that lasts eternally - 

A trail that people follow! 

So humans toiled, hungered, wept 

For name and fame and glory 

And paths were made and tarred and kept 
To write each different story. 

On such an earth my footprints lie 
But I cannot reason why 

All human roads are dark and dry 

And all the other creatures die. 




What do you think 'those that seek to find' means? 

Whose footprints are seen everywhere? 

What is the significance of a straight and narrow 

'All human roads are dark and dry' - explain 

Name some of the stars that 
you know. 

Name some of the species 

Name some species that 
crowd on the trees. 

Name some species that 
wait or creep on the ground. 

Name some species that 
swim in the sea. 


Select a word from the passage that contains a lot of letters. See how many smaller 

words you can make using only the letters in your chosen word. 


1 . The words you find must contain three or more letters. 

2. Do not use proper nouns. 

3. Plurals are allowed only if the letter 'S' appears in your spelling word. 

4. You may use a letter only the number of times it appears in your 

spelling word. 

Example! spelling word = establishment 

table is allowed but tennis is not allowed because there is only one 'n' in 
the word establishment. 




spelling word 

TryWordDiscoveriesforotherwordsonyourspelling list. Work togetherwith 
a classmate to reach one hundred words for each spelling word you try. 

Write a poem! 

Here is an interesting poeticform: 

This is a syllabicform. Syllables are the number of sounds in any word. 
This is called the Diamante, because after it is written, it looks like a diamond. 
Here are the number of syllables in each line, with an example. 

People - 2 

Are interesting - 4 

Strange, good and bad, diverse - 6 

Sad and happy - 4 

Jways - 

Each line describes people and each line adheres to the number of syllables needed. 
Now write your poem ! 




In preparation: 

Is the rock really hard? Is the water really soft? 

What moves? What stays still? These are the i 
questions a young butterfly asks. In this fascinating ^ \ 
excerpt, the butterfly, talks to the sunbeam. 

It grew darker as the butterfly flew into the thick 
forest, for the tall and leafy trees, formed a canopy 
above the ground, and there were only a few brightly lit spots. The fresh smell of the 
leaves and the crackle of the wind as it blew through the trees made the butterfly feel 
like humming a song. 

Whom should it talk to here? Oh, what was that? 

Abroad shaft of sunlight came slanting down through the branches of the tree. 
The butterfly could see lots of tiny particles dancing inside the beam. They looked 

"Hello, sunbeam! Whom are you bringing dancing down?" asked the butterfly 
to the sunbeam. 

"Why, I simply move along without bringing or taking anybody. What you see 
are dancing dust particles. They are everywhere. It is just that you cant see them 
unless there is a beam like me," the sunbeam answered in a matter-of-fact tone. 

''But what makes them dance? Why can't they be still?" asked the butterfly. 

The entire universe is one big dance. What looks still may not really be so. Do 
you think the rocks are still just because you can't see them move? 


There are dancing atoms and whirling particles inside them which never stop 
moving. These dust particles are visible to the eye because they are large. But the 
world is incredibly vibrant. Not all know this, because they can't see the movement." 

"Does that mean that there are dancing atoms in that solid rock over there which 
looks so heavy and still?" asked the butterfly, puzzled. 

"Indeed, there are dancing atoms inside all matter. The entire universe is made 
up of atoms and molecules which have in them constantly whirling particles. In that 
sense, nothing is static. The very earth that you live on is whirling through space and 
spinning on its own axis. Planets in outer space are revolving continuously around the 
sun. Everything is charged with energy," said the sunbeam. 

Looking at the sunbeam, that was not at all difficult forthe butterfly to imagine. 

"But what makes these planets and atoms move? How come they never get tired 
and stop moving?" asked the butterfly. 

"The energy of the cosmos is eternal, and 
can never be destroyed. It is this energy which 
goes into making me so bright, and it is this 
energy which, in a different form, allows atoms to 
remain in motion in that rock," said the sunbeam. 

"That means energy takes different forms," 
said the butterfly, thinking hard. 

"Yes, energy takes many, many forms. It is light energy that allows you to see 
things, and causes things to shine. It is the heat energy that warms you up. The 
energy of a fast-flowing river can be used to make yet another form of energy - 
electricity. But the sum total of all the energy in the universe is constant. It cannot be 
made more, it cannot be made less. It has always stayed the same, and it will always 
remain the same. Now do you see that everything has to be linked to everything else? 


: a single sun ray 


: tree cover 


: ray of light 


: full of energy 


: unbelievable 


: still 

in step with 

: always there 
: to its own rhythm 


For all events that happen in the universe require energy, and there is a fixed annount 

of energy in the universe. Somebody has to give, for the other to take. If you fold your 

wings, you use energy from the same source that I draw upon to shine!" The butterfly 

was silent. It seemed that the entire universe was dancing in step with itself! Surely, 

the dance of the atoms in the rock was connected in some way to the flight of the 


The butterfly began to feel more and more a part of what was around it. 

From Curjouser ana Curiouser\ by Dr. Neeraja Raghavan 

1 . What made the butterfly feel like humming a song? 

2. What did the butterfly see, in the broad shaft of light? 

3. What does the sunbeam tell the butterfly about the particles? 

4. What is the butterfly's question about stillness? 

5. How does the sunbeam answer it? 

6. What is the butterfly's next question? 

7. How does the sunbeam answer it? 

8. How does the sunbeam connect itself with the butterfly? What does it say? 


Let us understand Discuss and share. 

What does the sunbeam mean, when it says that energy taices different fomns? 

Read and EnjoyI 

Australian Aborigine Creation lUlytli 

A creation myth or creation story is a symboiic narrative of a group of peopie, 

which describes their eariiest beginnings, how the world they know began and how 
they first came into it. What is the creation-myth of yourculture? 

in preparation: 

The word 'aborigine' refers to a native person of any country. The Australian 
aborigines are the original inhabitants of Australia. Their race is more than 40,000 
years old! Researchers have uncovered DNA evidence linking Indian tribes to 
Australian Aboriginal people, supporting the theory humans arrived in Australia from 
Africa via a southern coastal route through India. 

There were 250 different nations in Australia, when 
the white people landed there two hundred years ago. This 
is one of their stories aboutthe way the world began. 

There was a time when everything was still. All the 
spirits of the earth were asleep - or almost all. 


The great Father of All Spirits was the only 
one awake. Gently he awoke the Sun Mother. 

"Mother, I have work for you. Go down to 
the Earth and awake the sleeping spirits. Give 
them fomns.'The Sun Mother glided down to Earth, 
which was bare at the time and began to walk in all 
directions and everywhere she walked plants and trees and flowers and herbs of all 
kinds, grew. After returning to the field where she had begun her woric the Mother 
rested, well pleased with herself. 

The Father of All Spirits came and saw her work, but requested her to go Into 
the caves and wake other splrlts.Thls time she ventured Into the dark caves on the 
mountainsides. The bright light that radiated from her awoke the spirits and after she 
left insects of all kinds flew out of the caves. The Sun Mother sat down and watched 
the glorious sight of her insects mingling with her flowers. 

However once again the Father urged her on.The Mother ventured into a very 
deep cave, spreading her light around her. Her heat melted the ice and the rivers and 
streams of the world were created. Then she created fish and small snakes, lizards 
and frogs. Next she awoke the spirits of the birds and animals and they burst into the 
sunshine in a glorious an^y of colours. Seeing this, the Father of All Spirits was 
pleased and rejoiced at the Sun Mother's wori<.She called all her creatures to her and 
instructed them to enjoy the wealth of the earth and to live peacefully with one 
another. Then she rose into the sky and became the sun. 

The living creatures watched the Sun in awe as she crept across the sky, 
towards the west. However when she finally sank beneath the horizon they were 
panic-stricken, thinking she had deserted them. All night they stood frozen in their 
places, thinking that the end of time had come. After what seemed to them like a 
lifetime the Sun Mother peeked her head above the horizon in the East. The earth's 
children learned to expect her coming and going and were no longer afraid 



In the beginning was Chaos, the dark, siient abyss from which aii things 

came into existence. Then came Earth, or Gaia, which produced SIcy, or 
Uranus. The earth and the si<y then created the world. 


In Norse mythoiogy, there was oniy a chasm, in the beginning (somewhat i ike 

the Greeks' Chaos) bounded on either side by fire and ice. When fire and ice 
met they combined to form the creatures of the earth. 


In a Chinese creation story, Heaven and Earth were in a cosmic egg. When it 

broke apart, the high and ciear fonmed Heaven, the dark formed Earth, and 

P'an-ku (the first-born) who was in between, became the mountains, rivers, 

soii, etc. Parasites feeding on his body, mingling with the wind, became 

human beings. 


An ancient Mesopotamian story of creation taiks of how fresh and sait water, 

mixed together, created the cycie of iife. 

Think of some stories your mother or grandmother has toid you. Do you find myths 
heipfui? How? 

Can you build a timeline for the sun mother's activities 



The Poem: My Grandmother's House 

Source : Kamala Surayya's Panorama - Aselection of Poems. Revised Edn. 1986, 

Oup. Indian Branch Head office 1'* Floor YMCA Library Building 1, Jai Singh Road, 


Care for the aged: Savithri Vaithi's Excerpt from interview. 

Prose: The Power of Langhter 

Source : From the Literature Reader VI connected for communication. 

Poem : You can't be that No, you can't be that by Brian pattern, orient Longman 3-6- 

752 HimayatrangarHyderabad- 500029 AP. 

Supplementary Reading : A woman of Courage 

Prose : Living Amicably - Excerpts from wings of Fire. 

Source : Dr.APJ. Kalam, Wings of Fire, Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd. 3- 

6747/1/A and 754/1 Himalaya Nagar, Hyderabad. 568029 - A.P. e-mail : 

Poem : 'No Men Are Foreign 

Source - James Kirkup's The Golden Lyre by Michael Shane Calvert. Ever Green 

Publications LH 4738/23, Ansari Road, Darya Gram / Near building New Delhi-110 

002. e-mail : 

Supplementary Reading : Sorry, Best Friend 

Source ; Sorry, Best Friend by Hemangini Ranade, Tulika Publishers 13, Prithvi 

Avenue 1®Tloor,Abhiramapuram, Chennai-600018. email : 

Prose : Rani of Thansi 

Source : Sandhya Rao 

Poem : To India - My Native Land 

Supplementary Reading : 'After the Storm' (Adopted) 

Source ; Deepa Agarmal, CBT Publication 1992. 


Prose : Our winged Friends 

Source : Excerpt from Zai Whitaker's Sali Ali for schools : A children's Biography. 

Orient Longman. 3-6-752 Himayat Nagar, Hyderabad - 560 029. email : 


Poetry : 'A tiger in the zoo' by leslie Norris 

Source : Class X CBSE English Text Book 

Supplementary Reading : The Ant eater and the Dassie 

Source : The scaly Anteater and the Dassie, Lakshmi Mukundan (Adapted)From 

Africa Tales from Tendai's Grandmother - 1997. Tara Books Pvt. Ltd. Plot No.317, 

Kamarajar Nagar, 4'^ Main Road, Thiruvanmiyur, Chennai-41. Email 

Prose: The unforgettable Johny - adapted 

Source : Chicken Soup for the school, Canfield & Honsen P.O. Box 700, Co5, Co6 

CT 06807-0700. 

Poem : Nine Gold Medals by David Roth 

Source : Chicken soup for the school, canfield & Housen. 

Supplementary Reading : God, This is Charles 

Supplementary Reading : the sunbeam 

Source : Excerpt from curiouser and curiouser by Dr.Neeraja Raghavan, Full circle 

Publishing House, 3-40, Jor Bagh Lane, New Delhi-1 1 003. 

Email :